Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder after Biofield Treatment

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Volume 5 • Issue 3 • 1000165
J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci
ISSN:2155-9538 JBBS an open access journal
Research Article
Open Access
Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
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ISSN: 2155-9538
Trivedi et al., J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 2015, 5:3
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9538.1000165
*Corresponding author: Dr. Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research
Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad
Road, Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel:+91-755-6660006; E-mail:
publication@trivedisrl.com
Received: July 24, 2015; Accepted: September 16, 2015; Published: September
28, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al.
(2015) Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder after
Bioeld Treatment. J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 5: 165. doi:10.4172/2155-
9538.1000165
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Abstract
Silver is widely utilized as antimicrobial agent and wound dressing, where its shape, size, surface area, and
surface charge play an important role. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of bioeld treatment on
physicochemical and atomic properties of silver powder. The silver powder was divided into two groups, coded as control
and treatment. The treatment group received Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment. Subsequently, control and treated samples
were characterized using particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface area analyser. Particle size data
exhibited that particle sizes d
10
, d
50
, d
90
, and d
99
(Size, below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particle are present, respectively)
of treated silver powder were substantially reduced up to 95.8, 89.9, 83.2, and 79.0% on day 84 as compared to control.
XRD results showed that lattice parameter, unit cell volume, and atomic weight were reduced, whereas density and
nuclear charge per unit volume were found to be increased as compared to control. In addition, the crystallite size was
signicantly reduced up to 70% after bioeld treatment on day 105 as compared to control. Furthermore, the surface
area of treated silver powder was substantially enhanced by 49.41% on day 68 as compared to control. These ndings
suggest that bioeld treatment has signicantly altered the atomic and physicochemical properties which could make
silver more useful in antimicrobial applications.
Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder after
Biofield Treatment
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Rama Mohan Tallapragada
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Omprakash Latiyal
2
and Snehasis
Jana
2
*
1
Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India
Keywords: Bioeld treatment; Silver; X-ray Diraction; Particle size;
Surface area
Introduction
Silver (Ag), a white, lustrous transition metal, known for its
high electrical conductivity, reectivity, and thermal conductivity. It
exists in form of face centred cubic (FCC) crystal structure. Silver is
widely used for electrical applications, ller material in conductive
polymer, solar photovoltaic panel etc. [1]. Besides this, silver and
silver-based compounds have been used in several antimicrobial
applications [2]. Guggenbichler et al. reported that silver has most
eective antibacterial action and least toxicity to animal cell [3]. Silver
ions (Ag
+
) are microcidal at low concentration, which can be used
to treat burns, wounds and ulcers. In addition, silver is also used in
various hygiene products including face creams, health supplements,
and water ltration cartridges [4]. Silver nanoparticles are gaining
tremendous attention due to its capability of modulating the chemical,
physical, antimicrobial, and optical properties. Furthermore, it is well
established that uniform sized particles, with required shape, physical
and chemical properties are of great interest in the formulation of
new pharmaceutical products [5]. Besides, silver nanoparticles can be
synthesised through various techniques such as sol gel, reverse micelle,
intern gas condensation, and sonochemistry, etc, but many of these
techniques either use hazardous or expensive chemicals [6]. Moreover,
in physical condensation process a tube furnace is used, which occupies
a large space and require large amount of thermal power [7]. Whereas,
in chemical synthesis approach, the use of strong reducing agent such
as borohydride results into smaller particles but it is dicult to control
over large particle [8]. us, aer considering properties and biological
applications of silver, authors wanted to investigate an economically
safe approach that could be benecial to modify the physical and
structural properties of silver powder.
e law of mass-energy inter-conversion has existed in the literature
for more than 300 years for which rst idea was given by Hasenohrl,
aer that Einstein derived the well-known equation E=mc
2
for light
and mass [9,10]. Furthermore, the energy exists in various forms and
there are several ways to transfer the energy from one place to another
such as electromagnetic waves, electrochemical, electrical and thermal
etc. Similarly, the human nervous system consists of neurons, which
have the ability to transmit information and energy in the form of
electrical signals [11]. us, a human has ability to harness the energy
from environment/universe and it can transmit into any object (living
or non-living) on the Globe. e object always receives the energy
and responded into useful way and that is called bioeld energy. is
process is known as bioeld treatment. Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment
has known to transform the characteristics in various elds such as
material science [12,13], microbiology [14-16], biotechnology [17,18],
and agriculture [19-21]. In metals and ceramics the bioeld treatment
has shown the excellent results at physical, thermal, and atomic level
[22,23]. In addition to this, the bioeld treatment had increased the
crystallite size and particle size by two folds and six folds, respectively
in carbon allotropes [24]. Based on the outstanding results achieved
by bioeld treatment on metals and ceramics, an attempt was made to
evaluate the eect of bioeld treatment on atomic and physicochemical
properties of silver powder.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder
after Bioeld Treatment. J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 5: 165. doi:10.4172/2155- 9538.1000165
Page 2 of 5
Volume 5 • Issue 3 • 1000165
J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci
ISSN:2155-9538 JBBS an open access journal
Experimental
Silver powder used in present investigation was procured from
MEPCO, India. Silver powder was divided into two parts, referred
as control and treated. e treated part was received Mr. Trivedi’s
bioeld treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized
using particle size analyzer, X-ray diraction (XRD), and surface area
analyzer at dierent time periods.
Particle size analysis
Particle size analyzer, Sympatec HELOS-BF was used to determine
the particle size distribution. is system can detect the particle of size
from 0.1 μm to 875 μm. e data obtained from the instrument was in
the form of a chart of cumulative percentage vs. particle size. Particle
sizes d
10
, d
50
, d
90
, and d
99
(size below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particle
are present, respectively) were computed from particle size distribution
curve. Percent change in particle size was calculated using following
equations:
( ) ( )
( )
10 10
Treated Control
10
10
Control
dd
% change in particle size,d 100
d
éù
-
êú
ëû
Where, (d
10
)
Control
and (d
10
)
Treated
are the particle size, d
10
of control
and treated samples respectively. Similarly, the percent change in
particle size d
50
, d
90
, and d
99
were calculated.
X-ray diraction analysis
XRD analysis of control and bioeld treated silver powder was
carried out on Phillips, Holland PW 1710 XRD diractometer,
which had a copper anode with nickel lter. e wavelength of X-ray
radiation used was 154056 Å. Data obtained from the XRD was in
chart form of intensity vs. 2θ°, with a detailed table containing d value
(Å), number of peaks, peak width 2θ°, peak count, relative intensity
of peaks, etc. Further, lattice parameter, unit cell volume, and atomic
weight were computed using PowderX soware. Atomic weight in g/
mol was calculated as multiplying the atomic weight by the Avogadro
number (6.023 × 10
23
). Weight of the unit cell was calculated as, atomic
weight multiplied by the number of atoms present in a unit cell. Total
nuclear charge was calculated as the number of protons multiplied by
charge on a proton (1.6 × 10
-19
C). Nuclear charge per unit volume was
computed as follow:
Total nuclear charge in an atom
Nuclear charge per unit volume
Volume of an atom
=
Crystallite size was calculated as follow:
Crystallite size = k λ/ b Cosθ.
Where, λ is the wavelength of x-ray (=154056 Å) and k is the
equipment constant (=0.94).
Besides, the percent change in the lattice parameter was calculated
using following equation:
[ ]
Treated Control
Control
AA
% change in lattice parameter 100
A
-
Where A
Control
and A
Treated
are
the lattice parameter of treated and
control samples respectively. Similarly, the percent change in all other
parameters such as unit cell volume, density, atomic weight, nuclear
charge per unit volume, crystallite size were calculated.
Surface area analysis
e surface area was measured by the Surface area analyser,
SMART SORB 90 based on Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), which
had a detection range of 02-1000 m
2
/g. Percent change in surface area
was calculated using following equations:
[ ]
Treated Control
Control
SS
% change in surface area 100
S
-
Where, S
Control
and S
Treated
are the surface area of control and treated
samples respectively.
Results and Discussion
Particle size analysis
e particle size analysis results of d
10
, d
50
, d
90
, and d
99
of silver
powder are presented in Table 1. Data showed that the particle size,
d
10
i.e. smaller size particles of treated silver sample was increased from
47.04 μm (control) to 48.73 μm on day 10, whereas it was signicantly
reduced to 1.97, 1.68, and 1,67 μm on day 84, 91, and 109, respectively.
It suggest that d
10
, was substantially decreased by 95.81, 96.43, and
96.45% on day 84, 91, and 109 respectively as compared to control.
Average particle size, d
50
was signicantly reduced from 81.90 μm
(control) to 79.43, 8.31, 6.82, and 6.94 μm on day 10, 84, 91, and 109
respectively in treated silver sample. It suggest that d
50
of treated silver
sample was substantially reduced by 3.02, 89.85, 91.67, and 91.53%
on day 10, 84, 91, and 109, respectively as compared to control. In
addition, particle size, d
90
of treated silver sample was reduced from
124.29 μm (control) to 118.71, 20.88, 17.60, and 34.59 μm on day
10, 84, 91, and 109 respectively, which indicated that aer bioeld
treatment, d
90
of silver samples were reduced by 4.49, 83.20, 85.84,
and 72.17% on day 10, 84, 91, and 109, respectively as compared to
control. Furthermore, the particle size d
99
was signicantly reduced
from 173.70 μm (control) to 154.16, 36.55, 34.95, and 61.35 μm on day
10, 84, 91, and 109 respectively in treated silver sample. It indicated that
d
99
of treated silver sample was substantially reduced by 11.25, 78.96,
79.88, and 64.88% on day 10, 84, 91, and 109 respectively as compared
to control. Overall, particle size data revealed that bioeld treatment
has signicantly reduced the silver particle size. Our group previously
reported that bioeld treatment has signicantly reduced the particle
size in titanium and antimony powder [12,13]. Silver particles have high
density of point defects, dislocations, grain and interphase boundaries.
e boundaries are structurally weak points in silver powder, which
can easily fracture under high stress conditions. us, it is assumed that
bioeld treatment probably transfer the stress energy to silver particles,
which may results into fracturing of particles and reduced particle size.
It is reported that antimicrobial action of silver is depend upon its size
i.e smaller the size of silver particles, higher is antimicrobial ecacy
in human body [25,26]. Further, it is also reported that antimicrobial
activity of silver is associated with its ionized form as body uid ionized
the silver (Ag
+
) and make it highly reactive. is ionized silver atom
binds to tissue protein and change the structure of bacterial cell wall
and nuclear membrane, which further leads to cell distortion and death
Group d
10
(μm) d
50
(μm) d
90
(μm) d
99
(μm)
Control, day 0 47.04 81.90 124.29 173.70
Treated, day 10 48.73 79.43 118.71 154.16
Treated, day 84 1.97 8.31 20.88 36.55
Treated, day 91 1.68 6.82 17.60 34.95
Treated, day 109 1.67 6.94 34.59 61.35
d10, d50, d90, and d99 are the size below which 10%, 50%, 90%, and 99%
particles are present, respectively.
Table 1: Effect of bioeld treatment on particle size of silver powder.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder
after Bioeld Treatment. J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 5: 165. doi:10.4172/2155- 9538.1000165
Page 3 of 5
Volume 5 • Issue 3 • 1000165
J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci
ISSN:2155-9538 JBBS an open access journal
[27]. Further, in order to study the eect of bioeld treatment at atomic
level, XRD analysis was carried out (Figure 1).
X-ray diraction analysis
XRD analysis results of control and treated silver samples are
illustrated in Tables 2 and 3. Data showed that the lattice parameter of
FCC unit cell of treated silver sample was reduced by 0.16 and 0.25%
on day 105 and 203 respectively, whereas no signicant change was
observed on day 105 and 189 as compared to control. Furthermore,
the unit cell volume was decreased by 0.47 and 0.75 on day 105 and
203 respectively as compared to control. Reduction of unit cell volume
leads to increase the density by 0.47 and 0.75 % on day 105 and 203,
respectively as compared to control. us, the decrease in unit cell
volume and increase in density in treated silver sample indicates that
compressive stress may be applied through bioeld treatment [28].
Hence, it is assumed that an energy milling might be induced through
bioeld treatment, which probably provided the high stress and that
might be responsible for internal strains in treated silver. Besides, data
also showed that atomic weight of treated silver sample was decreased
by 0.47 and 0.75% and nuclear charge per unit volume was increased
by 0.47 and 0.75% on day 105 and 203, respectively as compared to
control. No signicant change was observed in lattice parameter,
unit cell volume, density, atomic, weight and nuclear charge per unit
volume in treated silver sample on day 105 and 189. It is hypothesized
that the compressive stress induced through energy milling over unit
cell may lead to move the electron cloud toward nucleus from their
original position, which may reduce atomic size (volume of the atom)
[24]. e reduction of atomic size may increase nuclear charge per unit
volume in treated silver since both are inversely related. Previously,
our group reported that bioeld treatment had increased the nuclear
charge per unit volume in zinc and chromium [12]. Moreover, the
increase in nuclear charge per unit volume in silver as compared to
control indicates that ionic strength of silver (Ag
+
) probably enhanced
aer bioeld treatment. It is reported that positive charge of silver
ions (Ag
+
) plays an important role in antimicrobial activity [29].
us, it is assumed that bioeld treated silver could exhibit the higher
antimicrobial ecacy as compared to control. Besides, the crystallite
size of treated silver sample was reduced from 72.89 nm (control) to
21.87, 31.26, 62.48 and 27.35 nm on day 105, 156, 189, 203 respectively.
us, data suggest that crystallite size in treated silver sample was
signicantly reduced by 70.0, 57.1, 14.3, and 62.5% on day 105, 156,
189, 203, respectively as compared to control. e existence of internal
strain in treated silver is evidenced by change in unit cell volume and
lattice parameter (Table 3). ese internal strains made dislocations
to move on the slip planes and intersecting slip planes built in stress
concentrations. Furthermore, the stress concentration increases to
such an extent causing the crystal to fracture at the sub boundaries and
reduce the crystallite size. Our group previously reported that bioeld
treatment has signicantly reduced the crystallite size in aluminium
[30]. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the rate of dissolution of a
drug can be improved by choosing solids which exhibits high solubility
due to low crystallinity or high amorphous phase [31]. Torrado et
al. reported that solids with smaller crystallite size exhibited faster
dissolution rate as compared to solids with higher crystallite size [32].
us, it is assumed that bioeld treated silver powder may exhibit the
higher dissolution rate in body uid as compared to control, which
ultimately can improve the bioavailability of dosage form containing
silver.
Surface area analysis
Surface area of control and treated silver samples are presented
in Table 4. Data exhibited that surface area of treated silver sample
was increased from 1.70 m
2
/g (Control) to 2.54 m
2
/g on day 68 as
compared to control. It indicates that surface area was enhanced by
49.41% as compared to control on day 68 aer bioeld treatment. It is
well established that decrease in particle size of any powder enhance
its surface area. us, the decrease in particle size leads to increase the
surface area of treated silver powder aer bioeld treatment. Our group
Group Lattice Parameter
(Å)
Unit Cell Volume
(×10
-23
cm
3
)
Density
(g/cc)
Atomic Weight
(g/mol)
Nuclear charge per unit
volume (C/cm
3
)
Crystallite
Size (nm)
Control, day 0 4.098 6.882 10.511 108.932 208619.88 72.89
Treated, day 105 4.099 6.887 10.504 109.008 208473.34 21.87
Treated, day 156 4.092 6.850 10.561 108.418 209609.57 31.26
Treated, day 189 4.098 6.885 10.508 108.966 208555.75 62.48
Treated, day 203 4.088 6.831 10.591 108.117 210190.04 27.35
Table 2: Effect of bioeld treatment on atomic and structural parameters of silver powder.
Group Percent Change
Lattice Parameter Unit Cell Volume Density Atomic Weight Nuclear Charge Per
Unit Volume
Crystallite
Size
Treated, day 105 0.02 0.07 -0.07 0.07 -0.07 -70.0
Treated, day 156 -0.16 -0.47 0.47 -0.47 0.47 -57.1
Treated, day 189 0.01 0.03 -0.03 0.03 -0.03 -14.3
Treated, day 203 -0.25 -0.75 0.75 -0.75 0.75 -62.5
Table 3: Effect of bioeld treatment on percent change in atomic and structural parameters of silver powder as compared to control.
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
0
84
91
109
PERCENT CHANGE
NUMBER OF DAYS
d10
d50
d90
d99
Figure 1: Effect of bioeld treatment on particle size of silver powder.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder
after Bioeld Treatment. J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 5: 165. doi:10.4172/2155- 9538.1000165
Page 4 of 5
Volume 5 • Issue 3 • 1000165
J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci
ISSN:2155-9538 JBBS an open access journal
previously reported that bioeld treatment has reduced the surface area
in silicon and zirconium oxide [33,34]. Noyes-Whitney proposed the
relationship between rate of dissolution (R) and surface area (S) of a
solid as following [35]:
( )
s
DS C C
R
L
-
=
Where, D is diusion constant, Cs and C are the concentration
in the bulk dissolution medium and diusion layer surrounding the
solid, respectively, L is diusion layer thickness. is equation revealed
that the rate of dissolution can be modied primarily by altering
the surface area of the solids. us, the large surface area of treated
silver as compared to control indicates a higher dissolution rate of
silver particles in surrounding uid, which possibly improves the
bioavailability. Moreover, it is reported that antimicrobial activity of
silver is highly depended on its surface area since higher surface area
causes large exposure to bacteria [36,37]. us, overall study suggest
that bioavailability and antimicrobial ecacy of bioeld treated silver
might enhanced aer bioeld treatment.
Conclusion
Overall, bioeld treatment has substantially altered the atomic and
physicochemical properties of silver powder. Particle size data revealed
that d
10
, d
50
, d
90
, and d
99
of treated silver powder were signicantly
reduced up to 95.8, 89.9, 83.2, and 79.0% on day 84 as compared to
control. XRD results showed that unit cell volume and atomic weight
was decreased up to 0.75%, whereas density and nuclear charge per
unit volume and density decreased up to 0.75% as compared to control
silver on day 203. Also, the increase in nuclear charge per unit volume
indicates that ionic strength of silver (Ag
+
) probably enhanced, which
may improve its antimicrobial activity. In addition, crystalline size was
reduced up to 70% in treated silver as compared to control on day 105.
Moreover, the decrease in particle size, increases the surface area up
to 49.41 % in treated silver powder as compared to control on day 68.
us, reduction in particle size, crystallite size and increase in surface
area may increase the dissolution rate and thus bioavailability, which
further attributes to antimicrobial ecacy of treated silver as compare
to control.
Acknowledgement
Authors gratefully acknowledge to Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC, Institute of
Physics and Chinese academy of sciences for providing the facilities to use Powder
X software for analyzing XRD results.
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Group Control, day 0 Treated, day 68 Percent change
Surface area 1.70 m
2
/g 2.54 m
2
/g 49.41
Table 4: Effect of bioeld treatment on surface area of silver powder.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder
after Bioeld Treatment. J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 5: 165. doi:10.4172/2155- 9538.1000165
Page 5 of 5
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J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci
ISSN:2155-9538 JBBS an open access journal
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al.
(2015) Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder after
Bioeld Treatment. J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 5: 165. doi:10.4172/2155-
9538.1000165
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