Molecular Analysis of Biofield Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops

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Research Article Open Access
Trivedi et al., Adv Crop Sci Tech 2016, 4:1
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-8863.1000208
Research Article
Open Access
Advances in Crop Science and Technology
ISSN: 2329-8863
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Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000208
Adv Crop Sci Tech
ISSN: 2329-8863 ACST, an open access journal
*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt.
Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd, Bhopal- 462026,
Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-6660006; E-mail: publication@trivedisrl.com
Received December 30, 2015; Accepted January 25, 2016; Published January
31, 2016
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, et al. (2016)
Molecular Analysis of Bioeld Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops. Adv Crop
Sci Tech 4: 208. doi:10.4172/2329-8863.1000208
Copyright: © 2016 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Abstract
Eggplant and watermelon, as one of the important vegetative crops have grown worldwide. The aim of the
present study was to analyze the overall growth of the two inbreed crops varieties after the bioeld energy treatment.
The plots were selected for the study, and divided into two parts, control and treated. The control plots were left
as untreated, while the treated plots were exposed with Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld energy treatment. Both the crops
were cultivated in different elds and were analyzed for the growth contributing parameters as compared with their
respective control. To study the genetic variability in both plants after bioeld energy treatment, DNA ngerprinting
was performed using RAPD method. The eggplants were reported to have uniform colored, glossy, and greener
leaves, which are bigger in size. The canopy of the eggplant was larger with early fruiting, while the fruits have uniform
shape and the texture as compared with the control. However, the watermelon plants after the bioeld treatment
showed higher survival rate, with larger canopy, bright and dark green leaves compared with the untreated plants.
The percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and treated samples of eggplant and watermelon
seed samples were an average value of 18% and 17%, respectively. Overall, the data suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s
bioeld energy treatment has the ability to alter the plant growth rate, and can be utilized in better way as compared
with the existing agricultural crop improvement techniques to improve the overall crop yield.
Molecular Analysis of Biofield Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Mayank Gangwar
2
and Snehasis Jana
2
*
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Keywords: Solanum melongena; Citrullus lanatus; Bioeld energy;
Plant growth attributes; DNA Fingerprinting; Polymorphism
Introduction
e eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered as one of the
most important fruit vegetable crops all over the World [1]. In South
Asia, Southeast Asia and South Africa, eggplant is commonly known as
brinjal of family Solanaceae. e fruit grown are utilized for vegetables,
which contributes all the essential nutrients in our diet [2-4]. e yield
of eggplant fruit is dependent on several factors such as its owering
rate (anthesis), pest attack, and diseases infections, soil nutrient status,
its fertility, and application of fertilizers [5]. Eggplant is considered as
heavy feeder, which occupies the ground for long time, so at least two
dressings for fertilizers are required [6]. e low level of soil fertility
was linked with the poor prevailing climatic conditions, that results in
low nal yield.
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) belongs to the family of
Cucurbitaceae [7], grown as a cash crop. It is mainly grown for its
edible fruit that is a special kind of berry named as pepo. is plant is
originally from Southern Africa, while its center of origin is between
Kalahari and Sahara deserts in Africa [8]. ese areas has been regarded
as the point of diversication to other parts of the World [7]. For better
nutrient status, the soil fertility factors must meet the criteria for better
yield of fruit crop. Some methods has been prescribed for better yield
of soil is to boost it with the use of organic materials, like animal waste,
poultry manure, and use of compost or with the use of inorganic
fertilizers [9]. is crop is considered as heavy feeder of nitrogen that
required a high application of NPK fertilizers before sowing, followed
by nitrogenous fertilizers till owering stage [10]. e most important
source of nitrogen is the inorganic fertilizers, which yield the vigorous
vegetative growth, dark green leaves, and high photosynthetic rates. It
was reported that extensive use of fertilizers will delay the ripening,
reduce fruit setting and its number [11]. erefore, some alternative
approach besides the use of fertilizers, which could improve crop yield,
overall plant growth, and its vegetative growth.
Phenotypic characters are based on the genetic identication, which
aect the morphological characters of plant. DNA polymorphism
identication is independent of environmental conditions using
dierent molecular markers. Molecular markers of randomly amplied
polymorphic DNAs (RAPD) analysis shows variation in the genome,
which might expressed or not, while morphological markers reect
variation in expressed regions [12]. Using RAPD analysis, maximum
genetic relatedness among plant genome can be identied, due to their
simplicity, speed and low-cost [13].
Apart from these traditional approaches to improve the crop
yield, recent research suggest that treatment of seeds with electric and
magnetic eld can improve the growth and yield of agricultural crops
[14-16]. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
(NCCAM) recommended the use of energy treatment as an alternative
integrative medicine to promote human wellness [17]. Bioeld is a
type of electromagnetic eld that permeates and surrounds the living
organisms. Scientically, it can be dened as biologically produced
electromagnetic and subtle energy eld within the organism. e objects
always receive the energy and responding to the useful way that is called
bioeld energy treatment. Mr. Trivedis unique bioeld treatment is
known as e Trivedi Eect
®
. Mr. Trivedi having the unique bioeld
energy, which has been reported in several research areas [18-21]. On
the basis, of present literatures, present study was designed to evaluate
the bioeld treatment on selected plots (control and treated) for the
seeds of eggplant and watermelon crop. Genetic variability parameters
of both the crops were studied using RAPD (DNA ngerprinting).
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, et al. (2016) Molecular Analysis of Bioeld Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops.
Adv Crop Sci Tech 4: 208. doi:10.4172/2329-8863.1000208
Page 2 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000208
Adv Crop Sci Tech
ISSN: 2329-8863 ACST, an open access journal
Materials and Methods
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)
were selected for the present study. Both the plants were selected from
inbreed variety for all the experimental parameters. e bioeld treated
plot size for eggplant was 64 × 8 feet, while the control plot size was
47 × 12 feet. e treated plot size for watermelon was 64 × 16 feet,
while the control plot size was 35 × 25 feet. Both the plots were have
same number of plants, and were compared with respect to respective
control. e control plots were le untreated, while the treated plots
of eggplant and watermelon was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld
energy treatment. e seeds from each crop were cultivated for analysis.
However, the control plants were given standard cultivation parameters
such as proper irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides; while
the treated plots were given only irrigation, without any supportive
measure. DNA ngerprinting of both the plants were performed using
RAPD techniques using Ultrapure Genomic DNA Prep Kit; Cat KT 83
(Bangalore Genei, India) to study the genetic relationship before and
aer treatment.
Bioeld treatment strategy
e treated plots were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld energy
treatment. Mr. Trivedi provided the unique bioeld treatment through
his energy transmission process to the selected treated plots of both
the crops. e plant samples of treated plots were assessed for the
growth attributes with respect to control. Variability in dierent growth
contributing parameters and genetic relatedness using RAPD of control
and treated crops were compared [18].
Analysis of growth and related parameters of crops
e seeds of eggplant and watermelon were cultivated under similar
conditions. e vegetative growth of the crops with respect to plant canopy,
the shape of leaves, owering conditions, infection rate, etc. were analyzed
and compared with respect to the plants of control plots [22].
DNA ngerprinting isolation of plant genomic DNA using
CTAB method
e leaves disc of both plants were harvested aer germination, as it
reached the appropriate stage. e genomic DNA from both plant leaves
was isolated according to the standard cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium
bromide (CTAB) method [23]. Approximately 200 mg of plant tissues
were grinded to a ne paste in approximately 500 μL of CTAB buer.
e mixture (CTAB/plant extract) was transferred to a microcentrifuge
tube, and incubated for about 15 min at 55
º
C in a recirculating water
bath. Aer incubation, the mixture was centrifuged at 12000 g for 5
min and the supernatant was transferred to a clean microcentrifuge
tube. Aer mixing with chloroform and iso-amyl alcohol followed
by centrifugation the aqueous layers were isolated which contain the
DNA. en, ammonium acetate followed by chilled absolute ethanol
were added, to precipitate the DNA content and stored at -20
º
C. e
RNase treatment was provided to remove any RNA material followed
by washing with DNA free sterile solution. e quantity of genomic
DNA was measured at 260 nm using spectrophotometer [22].
Random amplied polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis
e RAPD analysis was performed on the each treated plot
plants using RAPD primers, which were label as RPL 6A, RPL 13A,
RPL 16A, RPL 18A, and RPL 19A for eggplant, while RPL 2A, RPL
7A, RPL 12A, RPL 14A, RPL 18A, and RPL 23A for watermelon. e
DNA concentration was considered about 25 ng/µL using distilled
deionized water for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiment.
e PCR mixture including 2.5 μL each of buer, 4.0 mM each of
dNTP, 2.5 μM each of primer, 5.0 μL (approximately 20 ng) of each
genomic DNA, 2U each of ermus aquaticus (Taq) polymerase, 1.5
μL of MgCl
2
and 9.5 μL of water in a total of 25 μL with the following
PCR amplication protocol. e PCR cycle condition for eggplant and
watermelon includes initial denaturation at 94
º
C for 5 min, followed by
40 cycles of annealing at 94
º
C for 1 min, annealing at 36
º
C for 1 min,
and extension at 72
º
C for 2 min, while nal extension was carried out at
72
º
C for 10 min. Amplied PCR products (12 µL of each) from control
and treated samples were loaded on to 1.5% agarose gel and resolved
by electrophoresis at 75 volts. Each fragment was estimated using 100
bp ladder (Genei
TM
; Cat # RMBD19S). e watermelon sample was
analyzed with help another ladder of 500 bp ladder (Genei
TM
; Cat #
RMBD13S). e gel was subsequently stained with ethidium bromide
and viewed under UV-light [24]. Photographs were documented
subsequently. e following formula was used for calculation of the
percentage of polymorphism.
Percent polymorphism = A/B × 100
Where, A = number of polymorphic bands in treated plant; and B =
number of polymorphic bands in the control plant.
Results and Discussion
Eect of bioeld treatment on growth contributing
parameters of eggplant
e eggplant crop in control plots showed the survival as less than
60-65%. e growth of eggplants was much less in the control group as
well. e eggplants had a small canopy in control plot. e leaves were
small in size, and their color was light green in eggplants of control plot.
e fruit of eggplant in control plot did not have uniform shape and
most of the fruit was diseased even aer being sprayed with pesticides
and fungicides.
On the other hand, the bioeld treated plot for eggplants showed
the leaves were thick, glossy, more green in color and bigger in size.
e canopy of the eggplant in bioeld treated plot was also larger as
compared with the control crop. e budding was early, that suggest
early fruiting as compared with the control. In bioeld treated plots, all
eggplants fruits had uniform shape and the texture as compared with
the control. Further, no disease in the treated plants were observed as
compared with the control (Figure 1).
Research study suggest that both mineral fertilizers and organic
manures have their own roles in soil fertility management, however
none can completely provide all the nutrients and conditions, which may
enhance the growth of eggplant [25]. Bioeld treatment on soil selected
for eggplant crops, showed enhanced growth in the absence of chemical
fertilizers, and suggested the alternate method to improve the crop yield.
Eect of bioeld treatment on growth contributing
parameters of watermelon
In the control plot, the survival rate of the watermelon plants was
less than 60 to 65%. e canopy was small, and the color of the leaves
were pale green in plants of control plot. Many of the plants were
reported as diseased and even the fruits were infected at an early stage,
with small fruit size in plants of control plot.
e bioeld energy treatment on plots with watermelon plants
showed high survival rate i.e., more than 99%. e canopy of watermelon
plants was much larger in treated plots than in the control plot plants.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, et al. (2016) Molecular Analysis of Bioeld Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops.
Adv Crop Sci Tech 4: 208. doi:10.4172/2329-8863.1000208
Page 3 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000208
Adv Crop Sci Tech
ISSN: 2329-8863 ACST, an open access journal
e color of the leaves was bright and dark green. e watermelons
were bigger in size, and the texture of the fruit was dierent. e treated
watermelon plants were absolutely free from disease. Although the
growth of watermelon plants has been reported to show vast variation
due to dierent seasons such as eect of light, heat, temperature, etc. [26]
Aer bioeld treatment, the growth characters were reported with huge
change as compared with the control in similar conditions, so results
suggest that bioeld treatment might alter some basic physiological
character of plants responsible for the overall growth (Figure 1).
erefore, it can be suggested that bioeld treatment on land could
be a new approach to improve the yield of eggplant and watermelon as
compared with the control. Mahajan et al. reported that on exposure
of plant seeds to electric and magnetic eld, seeds become polarized
and can retain the change in polarization. However, the polarized
seeds when come in contact with water, signicant interaction takes
place between water dipole and seed dipoles, which results in better
water uptake. is phenomenon might be responsible for better yield
of crops [15]. Our experimental results suggest better growth of plants
that might be due to the higher water retention in bioeld treated land
plants may be due to better dipole interaction.
e dierent environmental factors somehow contribute to the
growth of the plant. A report on the eect of magnetic eld on plant
seeds with respect to the growth of the plant was measured, and suggest
the improved growth of roots and shoots [27]. Further, the eect
was also reported to have improved level of photosynthesis, stomatal
conductance and chlorophyll content aer magnetic eld treatment
under stress conditions [28]. Bioeld energy treatment is a type of
complementary and alternative energy medicine, which involves low-
level energy eld interactions. Overall results assumed that the bioeld
energy might provide energy to the plant that change the paramagnetic
behaviors of the tested plants, which might help in improved growth of
eggplant and watermelon.
RAPD analysis of eggplant and watermelon
DNA ngerprinting using RAPD molecular markers have been
widely accepted technique to study the changes in vegetable crops [29].
Using dierent RAPD markers, important information for genetic
diversity can be evaluated for dierent species of plants. Besides
genetic diversity, population genetics study, pedigree analysis and
taxonomic discrimination can also be correlated [24]. However, RAPD
is considered as a powerful tool to evaluate the dierences between
inter- and intra-population of plants [30]. Bioeld energy treatment
was reported with high genetic variability among species using RAPD
ngerprinting [18]. However, the eect was also reported in case of
bioeld treated ginseng, blueberry [31], and lettuce, tomato [32] with
an improved overall agronomical characteristics.
Eect on plants genetic characters from control and bioeld treated
plots were compared and analyzed for their epidemiological relatedness
and genetic characteristics. Genetic similarity or mutations between
the two groups were analyzed using RAPD. Both the samples required
short nucleotide random primers, which were unrelated to known
DNA sequences of the target genome.
Random amplied polymorphic-DNA fragment patterns of control
and treated eggplant samples were generated using ve RAPD primers,
with 100 base pair DNA ladder. e results of DNA polymorphism
in control and treated samples are presented in Figure 2. e DNA
proles of treated group were compared with their respective control.
C
C T
T
Figure 1: The Trivedi Effect
®
on eggplant and watermelon.
(a) leaf of control eggplant was reported with less growth and infection,
(b) bioeld treated leaves and owers of eggplant are healthy and infection free,
(c) control watermelon plants showed infection in fruits and leafs, while
(d) bioeld treated watermelon showed leaves were free from any kind of
disease with healthy growth and fruits in high yield.
C: Control; T: Treated
Figure 2: Random amplied polymorphic-DNA fragment patterns of
eggplants of bioeld treated plots generated using ve RAPD primers, RPL
6A, RPL 13A, RPL 16A, RPL 18A, and RPL 19A. M: 100 bp DNA Ladder;
Lane 1: Control; Lane 2: Treated.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, et al. (2016) Molecular Analysis of Bioeld Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops.
Adv Crop Sci Tech 4: 208. doi:10.4172/2329-8863.1000208
Page 4 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000208
Adv Crop Sci Tech
ISSN: 2329-8863 ACST, an open access journal
e polymorphic bands observed using dierent primers in control and
treated samples were marked by arrows. e results of RAPD patterns in
bioeld treated eggplant showed some unique, common and dissimilar
bands as compared with the control. e DNA polymorphism analyzed
by RAPD analysis, showed dierent banding pattern in terms of
total number of bands, and common, and unique bands, which are
summarized in Table 1. e percentage of polymorphism between
samples was varied in all the primers, and were ranged from 0 to 40%
between control and treated samples. However, level of polymorphism
was maximum using the primer RPL 19A and minimum with RPL 18A,
while RPL 13A primers did not show any level of polymorphism.
On the other hand, watermelon also showed high level for
polymorphism using ve primers with respect to the control. Dierent
banding pattern was observed using RAPD DNA polymorphism in
terms of total number of bands, and common, and unique bands, which
are summarized in Table 2. e polymorphic bands observed using six
dierent primers in control and treated samples of watermelon were
marked by arrows in Figure 3. e level of polymorphism percentage
in watermelon samples were varied in all the primers, and were ranged
from 8 to 100% between control and treated samples. However, level of
polymorphism was detected as 7%, 16%, 18%, 12%, and 33% using the
primer RPL 2A, RPL 7A, RPL 12A, RPL 18A, and RPL 23A respectively.
Highest level of polymorphism was detected using primer RPL 23A,
33%, while RPL 14A did not shown any polymorphism.
RAPD analysis using dierent primers explains the relevant degree
of genetic diversity among the tested samples. Overall, RAPD showed
that polymorphism was detected between control and treated samples.
e percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and
treated samples of eggplant and watermelon sample was an average
value of 18% and 17%, respectively.
However, RAPD is a tool which will detect the potential of
polymorphism throughout the entire tested genome. Bioeld treated
plot plants eggplant and watermelon showed varied number of
polymorphic bands that indicated that the genotypes selected possess
a higher degree of polymorphism as compared with the control.
Molecular analyses and genetic diversity of eggplant and watermelon
have been reported using RAPD analysis. Mr. Trivedis bioeld energy
treatment on plots showed dierent level of polymorphism in eggplant
and watermelon that suggested that bioeld energy treatment might
have the capability to alter the genetic character of plants, which might
be useful in terms of productivity.
Conclusions
In summary, bioeld energy treatment on the eggplant and
watermelon showed improved growth characteristics such as fruits,
leaves and free from pest attack. e canopy of plant and fruits of
eggplant and watermelon was reported as large compared to their
respective control. Bioeld treated eggplant and watermelon plants
showed strong and uniform colored leaves, with high survival rate,
which suggest higher immunity of plant as compared with the control.
Further, the watermelons were bigger in size, and the texture of the
fruit was dierent from untreated fruits. It is assumed that aer bioeld
treatment, the polarization of seeds might be aected that changed
the interaction between water and seed during germination. Besides,
the percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and
treated samples of eggplant and watermelon seed sample was an
average value of 18% and 17%, respectively. Overall, the experimental
results suggested that Mr. Trivedis bioeld energy treatment might be
used to improve the overall crop productivity with the capability to alter
at genetic level.
Acknowledgments
Authors thanks to Bangalore Genei Private Limited, for conducting DNA
ngerprinting using RAPD analysis. Authors are grateful to Trivedi science, Trivedi
testimonials and Trivedi master wellness for their support throughout the work.
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Figure 3: Random amplied polymorphic-DNA fragment patterns of
watermelon in bioeld treated plot generated using six RAPD primers, RPL 2A,
RPL 7A, RPL 12A, RPL 14A, RPL 18A, and RPL 23A. M1: 100 bp, M2: 500 bp
DNA Ladder; Lane 1: Control; Lane 2: Treated.
S.No. Primer
Primer
Sequence
Band
Scored
Common
bands
Unique band
Control Treated
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3. RPL 16A AGGCGGGAAC 14 8 2 1
4. RPL 18A GAACGGACTC 11 10 1 -
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random amplied polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.
S.No. Primer
Primer
Sequence
Band
Scored
Common
bands
Unique band
Control Treated
1. RPL 2A CAGGCCCTTC 19 18 1 -
2. RPL 7A GTGATCGCAG 19 17 3 -
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4. RPL 14A ACGGATCCTG 13 13 - -
5. RPL 18A GAACGGACTC 13 13 - 1
6. RPL 23A CAGCACCCAC 14 14 1 3
Table 2: DNA polymorphism of watermelon analyzed after bioeld treatment in plot
using random amplied polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, et al. (2016) Molecular Analysis of Bioeld Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops.
Adv Crop Sci Tech 4: 208. doi:10.4172/2329-8863.1000208
Page 5 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000208
Adv Crop Sci Tech
ISSN: 2329-8863 ACST, an open access journal
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, et al. (2016)
Molecular Analysis of Bioeld Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops. Adv
Crop Sci Tech 4: 208. doi:10.4172/2329-8863.1000208
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