Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Chlorophyll Content, Pathological Study, and Molecular Analysis of Cashew Plant (Anacardium occidentale L.)

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Journal of Plant Sciences

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'(()'(()*
Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Chlorophyll Content,
Pathological Study, and Molecular Analysis of Cashew
Plant (Anacardium occidentale L.)
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Mayank Gangwar
2
,
Snehasis Jana
2, *
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.7,#(#8..
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6..9.+,15..4+,- .).4.:6.4.:-.$".(.8..#;<<<5<;$4
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Plant Sciences. >#)# ###&!%#% ##
Abstract:
'  " . '.   .   $  . &    < 
."Anacardium occidentale3#.$"? . $#+.4 .<<$4
.   <. < ." <.$# +  . < . <. " , .  . .
<..6#+, ,<$4..<.#@ ..<"..4A
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.. 4< .". ,.<.,.4.$"$< .. ."#
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. .#5 4$$.."<"$$A"$4$.,.4.
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 <$..... $."p. ,#
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21 #*,.4$$.6#+,E<$4.. ."."
...,. . ,,.$"< ..<4#
Keywords:
Anacardium occidentale3#5<;$4+.= 4.5 ;(<3<
@$
1. Introduction
+."Anacardium occidentale3#$
<.4<Anacardiaceae. .. #
+ <.4 Anacardiacea  < . ?.4 $
 <..,<5.AFG#+."
<  .<<."
<<..<FG#1 .<
 ..". <
 ....#=."<.
<< . .  < . ,.   ,.
. FG# + ..  4 < ."  
 ."$..<,$.4..  4 
.4 . . $ . # 5
$""..4" /&#
8.<.( 
#F&G"<.,. .. ?.4"
 H= . .<. , & # + < <" <
."  . . <.  "
  ." ,4# + .,$  <
<" " .  < . .  $ ,4
FG# =."  4     .$
.. 4< ....:..:<
 ..$FG#1$<....:
,4......4
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides A#(.#.,4
< . .$".<< ,4< ...
.,. . .4.  $.,. .$ . . <
,. FG# +  . 4  < $    . $4
$.4 ,.. .$#+ , ,4<
." . $     . .
.  $  < . . <# ( 
.., . .< . . B   , 
$" < ." . . <  < $
.#5<$4....,. .
4    .$. .   , 
,4.$"< .FDG#
+ < $4  . < < .$ <
?4 .4FG .". $. $
. .4#',,.,4
" 4 !$4 . 4 <<
   .$   , <
  .  . 4# +<  . 
4....<B".
.A   < ".4 :" . < $4
.FG#;$4.:<<$4
 4 ).. = < = .4 .
1., 6)==16 .  .4.
..  =16 FG# + B < $4
< 6# 6.. 9. +, .  " $A
. .  .4  .  .. < ,$ .
,$ $# 6# +,E B < . 
..++,;<<
I
".
<<.$..FG$4
F&G$4FGetc#1<$$<.
<< < < . . <. .<<$ 
,4 < ."   4 ,.. 
 . < + +, ;<<
I
 .  < ."
 "     $" . .
 4  )1 <$ $ ..4 < <
4. ,4 ..#
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
=."  < .  . <  . 
>..,".6....'.".<4#
+"<.<..<." <4
" . " ,. <." < .. .
. . ". $. . B .  . < .4
<.<.$#=.". $<,.4>&.>
"  . . <  1$.
0,4#5...(.".9:.9>4. 
5(99>. 6....'.#
2.2. Study Design and Biofield Treatment
(<."," .i.e..
.#=<.". .">&.>
,.4 < ." . $ . . " .
,.4 < ." ". .   < . .#
6# +, ,  < $4 . .
?   .   B $ $4 .
#@. $",.<
$4 . .# 1< < 4. .  < ."
. "  <  . . <. <
? . ..4 .  4  << < <
$4 .  ." .  # + 
.  " ?. <   4 
.$.4  .<<<
.#
2.3. Growth Attributes of Cashew Plants
=." . .<.<."
."$. .? .
" . . < <A   <. 4# *,.
. $ .4 . .4 . <"$
. ., etc. <   . . <. .
"..4A. .FG#
2.4. Determination of Chlorophyll Content
(.  "  .   ..4 < #
5... (.". 9:. 9 >4.  6....
'. 4 $ ..   4 1 D&D#
+ .  " .: < . ,. .
. ?.4  $ < < .<  " "$
..4 4".?.4$."
.< .      .$  3 <
4  ? 6(*# +  " . .
H=<&..,#+ ..".
. .   4 ?. ". .<  .
,... "...  
.&.  # = 4 . .
 4 .  4 .! . " .. 4
$<.$,41FG#
2.5. Pathological Examination
=. <<.<,.>&
. > < ." "  <  <<
.. < . .$...4 .
 < <$ . .   4 ..# +
.$.  <  .  "   
..4 < # 5... (.". 9:. 9
>4. 0,4. 6....'.#
2.6. Biophoton Emission Study
+ ."  "  <  . .
 < <  <  " ".
& 6..9.+,et al#;<<<5<;$4+.= 4=.$.(4
.6.1.4<=.".Anacardium occidentale3#
 .,.4<,$..#
+ ."" <"4  .4 .#+
4  ."  " . <  .: i.e.
"4 ."".<
 < < . <. 4 6.. +,# +
."<4 "$$A.4&<
4  .  <  4   $  . ,# 1 . 
,.<<.#+."<.
$  " :  B.A , .   .4
. . , $ .< ? # + .
"  . .< & # + " .  "  .
 . . .<  < .# '.4 
.  ".?  < "$ .<
< .4  $. " ". . 4 $
  ,. < #   # + $. $
.$.. "...$.<.
,.4 .  4$. <. < . ,$ ..#
+ $ <  $. ".  4   
<,.<#.<.)5
#+. 
4< ...".4
)J5
K5
!K
K5
!K

L )     <   .  #
+ ..5
5
5
.
..A.,4
.:< .. FG
.
2.7. Shelf-Life Study
+. "<<<. 
 .. < 0) B.4 . <
.. . . 4 .  ,. <
  .$ < <.4 . ?
,..p.,.FDG#
2.8. DNA Fingerprinting
2.8.1. Isolation of Plant Genomic DNA Using Nucleon
Phytopure DNA Extraction Kit
-)1<...".,"
. 4 ..  $  4  )1
?. : 1. 5 =.M 2) # '
 ".< .".<44.$
. . (( . <   ? "
 . 4..# 1<  < ".
. " ) 4  .4  .
<  . " ,  4.. .
,< .. #+)1,4".
<.. .<  <. < " <#
+.)1<.. "<
<)1<$ $..4FG#
2.8.2. DNA Fingerprinting by RAPD Analysis
+  "  .. .< < .
 .  $ ,  )1 <  <<
. " ..$..<4 
i.e.  : "  " .$ < . .<
.#= .".$21
")1.<.,.$..<
. <  " . ,. >& . > " .
.$.. <,.#21..4
". .  "  . . . # +
 .  ". ,  "  = . = "
"<,.<."i.e.>&1.-.
>1.-"<)1<$ $#)1
< . .  ". ..4  "  < <$ $
4 "  . . . = 1 . - .
= 1 . - " 4  .$ " .
,.<.".1.-.1.-".
# +"  < 21  "  <  
? .23&1231231231.
231.23&123123123D1.
23 1 < $ ,.. ..4 .$ 
...$  ,4#
1 <." < ".. .D&N=
<&<"44..$.D&N=<
..$.N=<.?.N=<#
@      4< ..$ . D&N=
<..$.O=<.?.N=
<##+<.?4"...N=
<#+.,.=2"<"
<..< . <21..4#+
=2.?P3< ..$ 
< )1  . " ,.A  #C .$. $ .
A < . <.$ ". . $  3.
-
+6
 =. M 265D(
# @ . ,.A. <
.   4 # Q3 < # Q$!3 <.
. ". . .$ .$ "  
$.4FG#
+ .$ < 4  ". .. $
<"$B.
 4 J1!5R
L 1 J  < 4  .  .
. .5J< 4 .#
2.9. Statistical Analysis
..< 4..4<.".,
.$ "? ..S(#;#6#...4A
$".41)*>1....<<
"  . . $  .   < 
? # @  ..4 ". < $
+:4+#1 .4,<p<0·05"..
..4$<.. .#
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Growth, Yield, and Yield Attributes of Cashew Plants
+ < . < "  4 $. . 
.<.4:,<A"
.  .$ $. . <"  
<.  ,. . < <A 
. <$    $  < . . 
B < .     $# +
?. $ . .4 $" <    .
8.<.( 
 ", " . " ..,4
<. $"<.<
  @$##+. . . .. 
 . . . ,    ., " ". .
<   ",   $  < .$
A.<.#+.  .
"..&<$:.<.4.
." <. ,.4. .$#
+. 4,"..$.". ."
.<.$4,$@$##+.$"
".< .."<
. ,. >& . >   . <.# +
.":.$".4.
.4 . .  <  . ,.4# '
$ <      . .  "
,#+.4< <.".
. &C   < 4. .  . ".  <
4#C"<T4..<.#
+ <"$ . <  . ."  "
, . . ,4 . ". <" .,4# +
. " : $ . " . .$  <
<.<"#'.<?  
.,.$"  <.
 .@$##
Figure 1. Effect of biofield treatment on cashew, (a) Control leaves with infections, (b) control plants with irregular flowering pattern, (c) cashew fruits with
improper growth and infections, (d) biofield treated farm plants with healthy leaves, containing more chlorophyll, (e), better flowering, that improves the
productivity, and (f) disease resistant and healthy cashew of biofield treated farms.
+ ., " $ $ .  
" . .. .< 4 
.,. ." .#+:<
., "  ".$<. .. ..
 <  . ,. $"$   . $ <
. <. . . $ 4 .
$4.4 .."".
".. ..$#+,<.,".
,4:...$<"<.
 .,# 5< . "  , ,.
 6..9.+,et al#;<<<5<;$4+.= 4=.$.(4
.6.1.4<=.".Anacardium occidentale3#
$" $ .. < ." . "
4 .   ." ,4# 1$
. < <. <" .4 .  < .
.  $ 4 FG < . <. 
 <. <" " $ .   $
,4<."#
3.2. Analysis of Chlorophyll Content After Biofield
Treatment
+  <  4  " ..4A .
, < . .< < .  " .
  4  .     .  
. .#+ 4.2".
 4."..4C<."
D#C  <.  .  . "  # +
 4.". .#&$!$
"  . $   ". . . #D . #D
$!$  <. . <.   ,4# /", 
 4   ". . < #&& $!$
#&$!$<..#&$!$<.
.<.#*,. .$. 4
  <. . ". D#C . D#&C  ,4#
@. 4". 
. #D $!$ " < . <.  .  "
,..#&&.#&$!$.#+<
.  4  .< < . ".
. 4 . ?.4 &#C    <
.<.#
Table 1. Effect of biofield treatment on chlorophyll content of cashew leaves.
Groups Chl a (mg/g) Chl b (mg/g)
Total Chlorophyll
(mg/g)
=@.
#&S# #&&S#
#DS#
@. #DS#D #&S#
UU
#&&S#
@. #DS# #&S#
UU
#&S#
1,..? ..S(#;#6#="$<.,.
.
**
P = 0.008J
= 4  . . . . ? < .$!
.<.,"$.,.$".
,4 .  "   4# V$
." . . .. .,4 $ 4
.,4<<,.FG"
.  . . . < < . <. .4
.,.. .#
+ .  .,    . .  .
.. , < . A4# + 4   
 .., <
 ,  <  < A4# 1  ,.
$$ .   4    ?.4  
B.4.,<. ..."."
:". 4.....<.
$4 . # '  . :" .    <
 4.#.." .#
/",  . . " + +, ;<<
I
" $   <  4  "  
   .  4  . .< . ".
 .#+". 4..
 4..<,
.< < .# '  .  . $4
,    . "     < 
,  <  . < 4. .
4 <   <  . < .. 
.<< < #/.
. . ., " " "$  . <
<  . .# /",  ?. . 4
" . " $  4  < A4 ..
<<.:$. .<<<
....<.#+<A4
4 .. .4<<
4  < :. A4 .  4  . .
".$. .#
3.3. Pathological Examination of Cashew
(.  <   ,. >& . > "
 <  << . <  .$.
?.. . "  . "   < 
<..<$..<# +
<<A. "<
.<."<.." 
.   ,# +  <  .$.
..4" <<$.4 Colletotrichum
gloeosporioides . Botryodiplodia theobromae , .<
$.. .<<A<.#+
  $$.<.4<$. 4 .$
<.."<$4 <
. < <A#
+ < < 4 .$
<$  . Colletotrichum gloeosporioides .
Botryodiplodia theobromae " $4   .$
$ . .$ . < ." . F&G
4  " .  . <. . " <
<<$<#
+  $$ .   . <. "
< <  .  . ..  .: :
. . $# 5 .4  
<. . ,< <."
" . ?.4  < .".4 < . # + .
.,.<.."<.
"? ..$..< 
.<..$<$#+$$..
<$ "  .  <  < . ."
.#
1$4   $$ .  "  .4 <
 . .$  ., $  . 
<  <.  . FG   $$ .
  < .   " . . 
. ., ,  .  . .$. 
.# +< .4 4  < <$ . .4 
 <.",.
#
+ .  .  $  ,$
  . <      .,  .4  
  <   < . . .  .
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