Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 2H, 13C, 18O, and 37Cl in Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers

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Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
2016; 4(1): 1-6
Published online December 21, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/sjac)
doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20160401.11
ISSN: 2376-8045 (Print); ISSN: 2376-8053 (Online)
Determination of Isotopic Abundance of
2
H,
13
C,
18
O, and
37
Cl in Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Gunin Saikia
2
,
Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
publication@trivedisrl.com (S. Jana)
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Gunin Saikia, Snehasis Jana. Determination of Isotopic Abundance
of
2
H,
13
C,
18
O, and
37
Cl in Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 4, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20160401.11
Abstract:
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have been
used as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals and
dyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of
2
H/
1
H or
13
C/
12
C, and
18
O/
16
O or
37
Cl/
35
Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4-
DCP and 2,6-DCP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while
the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s
biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP showed three to six m/z peaks at 162, 126, 98, 73, 63,
37 etc. due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks. The isotopic abundance ratios (percentage) in both the isomers
were increased significantly after biofield treatment as compared to the control. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM
and (PM+2)/PM after biofield energy treatment were increased by 54.38% and 40.57% in 2,4-DCP and 126.11% and 18.65%
in 2,6-DCP, respectively which may affect the bond energy, reactivity and finally stability to the product.
Keywords:
Biofield Energy Treatment, 2,4-Dichlorophenol, 2,6-Dichlorophenol, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
1. Introduction
Dichlorophenols in small amounts used directly as
pesticides or converted into pesticides by chemical means.
2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP are two isomers of dichlorophenols,
and they have been used as preservative agents for wood [1,
2], paints [3], vegetable fibers, and as disinfectants. In
addition, they are used as herbicides, fungicides insecticides
and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals
and dyes [4]. Chlorophenols are obtained by direct
chlorination of phenol using chlorine gas [5]. In the technical
product, there are impurities of other chlorophenol isomers or
chlorophenols with more or less chlorine [6]. Environmental
contamination is mainly occurred during manufacturing,
storage, transportation and application of chlorophenols. In
recent years, public health authorities are concerned about
the air borne contaminations and so germicidal paints has
been proposed in reducing atmospheric microbial pollutions
[7]. Keeping in mind of the applicability in large quantities
the stability of these isomers is most desired quality that
determines the life of the finished product. Hence, it is
important to find out an alternate approach that could
enhance the chemical stability of the compound by altering
the structural properties. Recently, biofield energy treatment
is reported to alter the physicochemical properties and even
isotopic ratios of various elements significantly in a molecule
of various living and non-living substances [8-10]. The
isotopic abundance ratios of
2
H/
1
H, or
13
C/
12
C, and
37
Cl/
35
Cl
or
18
O/
16
O, could be locally altered by kinetically driven
chemical reactions. There is an alternative and well-known
approach; Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment, also
known as The Trivedi Effect
®
, that can be applied on
dichlorophenol isomers to undergo the isotopic changes.
The distribution of contaminant sources of any molecule
on a native or global scale can be understood by determining
the isotopic abundance ratio [11]. Any kinetic process that
leads to the local depletion or enhancement of isotopes in
organic molecules can be successfully determined using gas
2 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Determination of Isotopic Abundance of
2
H,
13
C,
18
O, and
37
Cl in
Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers
chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) [12]. These
deviations from perfect chemical equivalence are termed as
isotope effects. The isotopic abundance ratio is commonly
reported in terms of atom percent and determined by high
resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS spectrometry) [13].
For example,
13
C
Atom percent
13
C = [
13
C/(
12
C +
13
C)]×100
Moreover, the rate of chemical reaction may vary with the
mass of the nucleus with different isotopic substitutions,
which slightly affect the partitioning of energy within the
molecules [14]. Study the impact of biofield energy treatment
on isotopic abundance ratio of elements in a molecule is new
to its kind and our group have successfully designed and
establish the fact.
The National Center for Complementary and Alternative
Medicine (NCCAM) has recommended the use of energy
therapy as a part of Complementary and alternative medical
therapies (CAM) in the healthcare sector [15]. CAM includes
numerous energy-healing therapies, in which the biofield
therapy is a form of putative energy therapy that is being
widely used worldwide to improve the overall health of
human beings. Humans have the ability to harness energy
from the environment/universe that can be transmitted to any
objects around. The ability of Mr. Trivedi as a biofield energy
practitioner was well studied in recent years. The
physicochemical properties of various molecules and crystals
were altered by utilizing Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy
treatment [16-18]. Based on the previous results achieved by
The Trivedi Effect in various fields, biofield energy treated
2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP were taken for mass spectroscopy
studies to evaluate the isotopic abundance ratio of
2
H/
1
H, or
13
C/
12
C [(PM+1)/PM] and
37
Cl/
35
Cl or
18
O/
16
O [(PM+2)/PM],
[where PM is the primary molecule and (PM+1) and (PM+2)
are isotopic molecules].
2. Experimental
2.1. Materials
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol
(2,6-DCP) were procured from Lobachemie Pvt. Ltd., India
and S. D. Fine Chemicals Pvt. Limited, India, respectively.
2.2. Method
Each of the 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP samples was divided
into two parts, one part remained untreated and called as
control and the other part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s
biofield energy treatment under standard laboratory
conditions, that considered as treated sample. The treated
sample was further divided into four groups (i.e. T1, T2, T3,
and T4) for GCMS analysis. There are no differences among
the treated samples T1, T2, T3, and T4, except time. The
isotopic abundance ratio of [(PM+1)/PM] and [(PM+2)/PM]
in control and treated samples were characterized using gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
2.3. GC-MS Spectroscopy
GC-MS analysis was done on Perkin Elmer/auto system
XL with Turbo mass, USA. The GC/MS was performed in a
silica capillary column. It was equipped with a quadrupole
detector with pre-filter, one of the fastest, widest mass
ranges available for any GC/MS. The mass spectrometer
was operated in an electron ionization (EI)
positive/negative, and chemical ionization mode at the
electron ionization energy of 70 eV. Mass range: 20-620
Daltons (amu), stability: ± 0.1 m/z mass accuracy over 48
hours. The identification of analytes were done by retention
time and by a comparison of the mass spectra of identified
substances with references.
The isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM
was expressed by its deviation in treated samples as
compared to the control. The percentage change in isotopic
ratio was calculated from the following formula:
Percent change in isotopic abundance ratio
=
R

− R

R

× 100
Where, R
Treated
and R
Control
are the ratios of intensity at
(PM+1) or (PM+2) to PM in mass spectra of treated and
control samples, respectively.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. GC-MS Study of 2,4-Dichlorophenol
The mass spectrum obtained for the control sample of 2,4-
DCP in the positive-ion mode is illustrated in Fig. 1. It gives
molecular ion peak at m/z 162 with two major fragmented
peaks in lower m/z region that are well matched with the
literature report [19]. The peaks at m/z 64 and 98 were due to
the fragmentation of 2,4-DCP to C
5
H
4
+
and C
6
H
10
O
+
ions,
respectively. The GC-MS spectra of treated samples were
slightly different from the fragmentation pattern of the
control sample. The GC-MS spectra of treated (T1, T2, T3,
and T4) samples are presented in Fig. 2. It showed three
major peaks including molecular ion peak in T1 sample of
2,4-DCP with the base peak at m/z 63 (C
5
H
3
+
). In both the
cases (control and treated) mass spectra showed the loss of
two Cl
-
ions in the fragmentation process, followed by the
ring opening reaction, corresponded to the following ions,
respectively: C
6
H
10
O
+
,
C
5
H
3
+
, m/z 98 and 63. Most unlikely,
there were four major peaks observed in T2, with an
additional peak at m/z 73 (C
4
H
9
O
+
). However, similar to the
control sample, three major peaks at m/z 162, 98 and 63,
were observed in T3 and T4.
The intensity ratio and calculated percentage isotopic
abundance ratio of all three elements are presented in Table
1. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and
(PM+2)/PM in the control and treated 2,4-DCP was plotted
in Fig. 3.
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry 2016; 4(1): 1-6 3
Figure 1. GC-MS spectrum of control 2,4-dichlorophenol.
Table 1. GC-MS isotopic abundance analysis result of 2,4-dichlorophenol.
Peak Intensity Control
Treated
T1 T2 T3 T4
m/z of PM 100 78.63 100 100 100
m/z of (PM+1) 6.73 5.35 10.39 6.83 8.96
(PM+1)/ PM 0.0673 0.0680 0.1039 0.0683 0.0896
Percent change 1.09 54.38 1.48 33.13
m/z of PM 100 78.63 100 100 100
m/z of (PM+2) 63.37 50.69 89.08 63.5 79.03
(PM+2)/ PM 0.633 0.644 0.890 0.635 0.7903
Percent change 1.73 40.57 0.25 24.71
It was clearly seen from the Fig. 3 that, the isotopic
abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM was
increased by 54.38% and 40.57%, respectively in treated
samples of 2,4-DCP as compared to the control. The
significant increase in the isotopic abundance ratio of
(PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM in 2,4-DCP may have high
impact on the bond energies and reactivity of the molecules
after biofield energy treatment. The increased isotopic
abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM in the
treated samples may increase µ (effective mass) and binding
energy in the 2,4-DCP molecule with heavier isotopes, and
this may result in enhancing binding energy and stability of
the molecule [20].
Figure 2. GC-MS spectra of treated 2,4-dichlorophenol samples (T1, T2, T3, and T4).
4 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Determination of Isotopic Abundance of
2
H,
13
C,
18
O, and
37
Cl in
Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers
Figure 3. Percent change in the isotopic abundance of (PM+1)/PM and
(PM+2)/PM in 2,4-dichlorophenol after biofield energy treatment.
3.2. GC-MS Study of 2,6-Dichlorophenol
The mass spectrum of the control sample of 2,6-DCP is
presented in Figure 4 and well matched with the literature
report [21]. The molecular ion peak was observed at m/z 162
with three other fragmented peaks in mass spectra. Unlike the
control sample, there are 3-6 major m/z peaks were observed
in the mass spectra of treated 2,6-DCP (Figure 5) at m/z 162,
126, 98, 73, 63, 37 etc. The calculated relative intensity ratio
and percentage abundance ratios in 2,6-DCP are presented in
Table 2. In both the isomers 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP,
molecular ion peak was observed as a base peak except in the
T1. However, they exhibited slight different fragmentation
pattern due to the structural and reactivity differences in
them. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and
(PM+2)/PM in control and treated samples of 2,6-DCP are
presented in Fig. 6. The isotopic abundance ratio of
(PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM of treated 2,6-DCP was
increased upto 126.11% and 18.65% as compared to the
respective control.
Figure 4. GC-MS spectrum of control sample of 2,6-dichlorophenol.
Figure 5. GC-MS spectra of treated samples of 2,6-dichlorophenol (T1, T2, T3, and T4).
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry 2016; 4(1): 1-6 5
If the lighter isotopes were substituted by heavier isotopes
then the effective mass (µ) of the particular bond is increased
with the subsequently binding energy in the molecule [20].
Thus, this might increase the effective mass and binding
energy after biofield energy treatment. As a result, the
chemical stability of dichlorophenol isomers might be
enhanced. On the contrary, the slight decrease in the isotopic
abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM in T1 of 2,4-
DCP might reduce the effective mass of the particular bond
with binding energy.
Figure 6. Percent change in the isotopic abundance of (PM+1)/PM of 2,6-
dichlorophenole after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control.
Table 2. GC-MS isotopic abundance analysis result of 2,6-dichlorophenol.
Peak Intensity Control Treated
T1 T2 T3 T4
m/z of PM 100 80.69 100 99.8 100
m/z of (PM+1) 8.5 5.08 9.55 17.42 19.22
(PM+1)/PM 0.085 0.062 0.095 0.174 0.192
Percent change -25.93 12.35 104.94 126.11
m/z of (PM+1) 75.78 51.19 79.57 90.43 89.92
(PM+1)/PM 0.757 0.634 0.795 0.904 0.899
Percent change -16.28 5.0 19.33 18.65
The effective mass of some probable isotopic bonds were
calculated and presented in Table 3. The result showed that µ
of normal
12
C-
12
C (µ=6),
12
C-
35
Cl (µ=8.93) and
1
H-
12
C
(µ=0.923) bonds were increased in case of heavier isotopes
i.e.
13
C-
12
C (µ=6.26),
12
C-
37
Cl (µ=9.06) and
2
H-
12
C (µ =1.71).
After biofield treatment, bond strength, stability, and binding
energy of the aromatic ring of 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP
molecules might be increased due to the higher effective
mass (µ) after biofield energy treatment [22].
The decreased reactivity of the dichlorophenol isomers
may increase the stability of the chlorophenol based
industrial products, by reducing the degradation kinetics in
the finished products after production. Furthermore, the
molecules used in paint industry should have high chemical
and photo stability for sustainability of the product. Photo
stability is a great concern in order to use them successfully
in outdoor conditions without degradation. After biofield
treatment, the chemical, as well as photo stability might be
enhanced due to the presence of higher isotopes, that enable
them to expose the materials to light and robust weather
conditions for longer period.
Table 3. Possible isotopic bonds in 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,6-
dichlorophenol.
Isotopes Bond Isotope type
Reduced mass (m
A
m
B
/(m
A
+ m
B
)
12
C-
12
C Lighter 6.000
13
C-
12
C Heavier 6.260
1
H-
12
C Lighter 0.923
1
H-
13
C Heavier 0.929
2
H-
12
C
Heavier 1.710
12
C-
35
Cl
Lighter 8.936
12
C-
37
Cl
Heavier 9.061
16
O-
12
C
Lighter 6.850
18
O-
12
C
Heavier 7.200
16
O-
13
C
Heavier 7.170
Where, m
A
- mass of atom A, m
B
- mass of atom B, here A may be C or H and
so on
4. Conclusions
In summary, dichlorophenol isomers, 2,4-DCP and 2,6-
DCP were studied with GC-MS under the influence of
biofield energy treatment and observed a significant change
in isotope abundance of
2
H/
1
H or
13
C/
12
C, and
18
O/
16
O or
37
Cl/
35
Cl, as compared to the respective control samples. The
percent change in isotope abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and
(PM+2)/PM in 2,4-DCP was increased upto 54.38% and
40.57%, respectively in the treated samples. Similarly, the
percent change in isotope abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and
(PM+2)/PM in 2,6-DCP was increased significantly by
126.11% and 18.65%, respectively. The increased isotopic
abundance ratios have significant effect on chemical
reactivity and energies of the molecule. Due to the
enhancement in the isotopic abundance ratio the reactivity
may be reduced significantly by increase in the effective
mass (
µ
) of the treated sample. It can be concluded from the
above observations that the enhancement of heavier isotopes
in the molecule as well as the functional groups may decrease
the reactivity the functional groups of chlorophenol isomers,
consequently enabling their utility as germicidal coating in
the dye industry and as an effective pesticide.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to acknowledge the Sophisticated
Analytical Instrument Facility (SAIF), Nagpur for providing
the instrumental facility. We are very grateful for the support
from Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi
Testimonials in this research work.
References
[1] Felton CC, De Groot RC (1996) The recycling potential of
preservative-treated wood. Forest Prod J 46: 37.
[2] Helen DW, Clyde H, Kay T, Ruth H, Stephen AM, et al.
(1996) Reproductive effects of paternal exposure to
chlorophenate wood preservatives in the sawmill industry.
Scand J Work Environ Health 22: 267-273.
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