Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Calcium Carbide and Praseodymium Oxide

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International Journal of Ma
terials Science and Applications
2015; 4(6): 390-395
Published online December 21, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ijmsa)
doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20150406.14
ISSN: 2327-2635 (Print); ISSN: 2327-2643 (Online)
Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and
Structural Properties of Calcium Carbide and
Praseodymium Oxide
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Rama Mohan Tallapragada
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
,
Gopal Nayak
1
, Omprakash Latiyal
2
, Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
publication@trivedisrl.com (S. Jana)
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Omprakash Latiyal, Snehasis Jana.
Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Calcium Carbide and Praseodymium Oxide. International
Journal of Materials Science and Applications. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 390-395. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20150406.14
Abstract:
Calcium carbide (CaC
2
) is known for its wide applications in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide,
whereas praseodymium Oxide (Pr
6
O
11
) is used in sensors and high-temperature pigments. The present study was designed to
evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical and structural properties of CaC
2
and Pr
6
O
11
powder. The
powder samples of both compounds were equally divided into two parts, referred as control and treated. The treated part of
both compounds was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples were
investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that
the biofield energy treatment has increased the lattice parameter of unit cell by 3.35% in the treated CaC
2
sample as compared
to the control. The density of treated CaC
2
sample was reduced upto 4.49% and molecular weight was increased upto 4.70% as
compared to the control. The crystallite size of CaC
2
was reduced from 98.19 nm (control) to 52.93 nm in the treated CaC
2
sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR analysis exhibited that the absorption band attributed to C=C stretching
vibration was shifted to higher wavenumber as compared to the control. Thus, above data suggested that biofield energy
treatment has considerable impact on the physical and structural properties of CaC
2
. Besides, in Pr
6
O
11
, the XRD did not show
any significant change in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight. However, the FT-IR spectra revealed that the
absorption band attributing to Pr-O stretching vibration was shifted from 593 cm
-1
(control) to higher wavenumber 598 cm
-1
in
the treated Pr
6
O
11
sample. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment could be applied to modify the CaC
2
and Pr
6
O
11
powder for
the use in chemical industries.
Keywords:
Calcium Carbide, Praseodymium Oxide, Biofield Energy Treatment, X-Ray Diffraction,
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
1. Introduction
Calcium carbide is an important industrial material, used
in the production of acetylene and cyanamide [1]. It is a
colorless solid, exist in the form of a distorted rock-salt
structure with the C
2
2−
units lying parallel [2]. It gains
significant attention due to its use in the desulfurization of
steel and cast iron in steel industries. It acts as a fuel in
steelmaking to extend the scrap ratio to liquid iron [3]. In
addition, it plays an important role in artificial ripening of
fruit, which provides the acetylene gas similar to ethylene
[4]. It is synthesized from a mixture of lime and coke in
electric arc furnace at very high temperature approximately
2000°C [5]. Due to high temperature, it is difficult to control
the physical and structural properties of CaC
2
using
conventional methods. Thus, it is important to find a suitable
approach which can modify the physical and structure
properties of CaC
2
, after synthesis from convention methods.
Over the past few years, praseodymium oxide (Pr
6
O
11
) has
been utilized in different applications such as high-temperature
pigments [6], and catalysts [7, 8]. It is also used in sensors and
oxygen storage components of three-way automotive catalysts
[9]. Currently, it is synthesized by various processes such as
International Journal of Materials Science and Applications 2015; 4(6): 390-395 391
solid-state reactions [10-12], a molten salt method [13], or sol-
gel [14]. However, these processes have certain limitation such
as large crystallite size, non-uniformity, etc. Furthermore, in
order to use these compounds in industries, its physical and
structural properties play a crucial role. Thus, it is important to
avail an alternative approach i.e. biofield energy treatment,
which may be used to modify the physical and structural
properties of CaC
2
and Pr
6
O
11
powder.
It is well established that the energy can be transferred
from one place to another place using several scientific
techniques. Further, it exists in various forms such as
thermal, electric, kinetic, nuclear, etc. The living organisms
are exchanging their energy with the environment for their
health maintenance [15]. Moreover, a human has the
capability to harness the energy from the
environment/Universe and transmit it to any object around
the Globe. The object(s) receive the energy and respond in a
useful way that is called biofield energy, and this process is
known as biofield energy treatment. The National Center for
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) has
recommended the use of alternative CAM therapies (e.g.
healing therapy) in the healthcare sector [16]. Moreover, Mr.
Trivedi’s unique biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi
Effect
®
) had been extensively studied in materials science
[17,18]. It has substantially altered the atomic, physical and
thermal properties in metals [18, 19] and ceramics [20].
Thus, after considering the effect of biofield energy treatment
on metals and ceramics, this study was designed to evaluate
the effect of this treatment on the physical and structural
properties of the CaC
2
and Pr
6
O
11
powder using X-ray
diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR)
spectroscopy.
2. Materials and Methods
The CaC
2
and Pr
6
O
11
powder were purchased from Sigma
Aldrich, USA. Each powder samples were divided into two
groups: control and treated. The control sample of both
compound were remained as untreated, while the treated
samples were in sealed pack, handed over to Mr. Trivedi for
biofield energy treatment under standard laboratory
condition. Mr. Trivedi provided the treatment through his
energy transmission process to the treated samples without
touching the samples. The control and treated samples were
analyzed using XRD and FT-IR.
2.1. XRD Study
The Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray diffractometer
system was used to perform the XRD analysis of control and
treated samples. From the XRD system, the data was
obtained in the form of a table containing Bragg angles, the
peak intensity counts, relative intensity (%), d-spacing value
(Å), and full width half maximum (FWHM) (θ°) for each
peak. After that, the PowderX software was used to calculate
the crystal structure parameters such as lattice parameter and
unit cell volume of the control and treated samples. Also, the
Scherrer equation was used to compute the crystallite size as
given below:



Here, k is equipment constant (=0.94), λ =1.54056 Å, and
b is full width half maximum (FWHM). After that, the
percentage change in G was calculated using following
formula:


Where, G
c
and G
t
are the crystallite size of control and
treated samples, respectively.
2.2. FT-IR Spectroscopy
The FT-IR analysis of control and treated samples were
accomplished on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform infrared
spectrometer (Japan). The spectra was obtained with
frequency range of 4000-500 cm
-1
. The purpose of the FT-IR
analysis was to study the impact of biofield energy treatment
on dipole moment, force constant and bond strength in the
compounds
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. XRD Study
The XRD technique is a quantitative and non-destructive
technique, which is commonly used to study the crystal
structure and related parameters of a compound. Fig. 1 shows
the XRD diffractograms of control and treated CaC
2
samples.
The control CaC
2
sample showed the intensive XRD peaks at
Bragg’s angle (2θ) 26.57°, 27.95°, 32.51°, and 37.34 which
were supported by the literature [21]. However, the treated
CaC
2
sample T1 exhibited the crystalline peaks at Bragg’s
angle 27.24°, 28.39°, 32.10°, 34.00°, and 37.27°.
Furthermore, the treated sample T2 showed the peaks at
33.04°, 34.77°, 38.18°, and 44.61. Thus, above data
suggested that the positions of the peaks in the treated
samples were significantly altered as compared to the
control. The alteration in peak positions in treated samples
could be due to the energy transferred through biofield
energy treatment. It is possible that the energy transferred
through treatment induced stress, which may generate
internal strain in the treated samples and that might be
responsible for the alteration in peak positions in the treated
samples as compared to the control. Besides, the crystal
structure parameters of both control and treated CaC
2
samples were computed using PowderX software and
presented in Table 1. The data exhibited that the lattice
parameter of unit cell was changed from 8.36Å (control) to
8.32Å and 8.64 Å in treated CaC
2
samples T1 and T2,
respectively. It indicated that the lattice parameter was
increased by 3.35% in T2, though no significant change was
found in T1 as compared to the control (Fig. 2). The data also
showed that the unit cell volume was increased by 1.83 and
392 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Structural
Properties of Calcium Carbide and Praseodymium Oxide
4.70% in T1 and T2, respectively as compared the control.
The increase in unit cell volume led to reduce the density by
1.80 and 4.49% in T1 and T2, respectively as compared the
control. On the contrary, the molecular weight was increased
by 1.83 and 4.7% in T1 and T2, respectively as compared to
the control. Thus, the above results suggested that the
biofield energy treatment probably acted at nuclear level to
cause these modifications. It is assumed that the energy
transferred through biofield treatment could be in the form of
the neutrinos, which probably acted at nuclear level to cause
these modifications at nuclear level. Besides, it was also
observed that the crystallite size was reduced from 98.19 nm
(control) to 74.35 nm and 52.93 nm in T1 and T2 samples,
respectively. It was reported that presence of internal strain
leads to fracture the crystallite into sub-crystallites [22].
Thus, it assumed that internal strain induced through biofield
energy treatment led to reduce the crystallite size in treated
CaC
2
samples. It is known that the CaC
2
is widely used in the
production of acetylene gas in industries. In this process,
CaC
2
reacts with water to form acetylene gas; thus for this
chemical reaction the surface area and crystallite size of
CaC
2
play an important role [23]. It was reported that the
decrease in crystallite size led to increase the surface area and
increase the chemical reactivity [24]. Thus, based on this, it is
assumed that the decrease in crystallite size in treated CaC
2
may increase the rate of the reaction for the production of
acetylene gas and that may resulted into higher yield as
compared to the control.
Fig. 1. X-ray diffractogram of calcium carbide powder.
The XRD diffractogram of control and treated Pr
6
O
11
samples is presented in Fig. 3. It shows the intensive XRD
peaks at Bragg’s angle (2θ) 28.23°, 32.72°, 46.93°, and
55.68°, which were corresponded to crystalline planes (111),
(200), (220), and (311) , respectively according to the joint
committee on powder diffraction standards (JCPDS) card no.
42-1121 [25]. However, the treated sample showed the peaks
at 28.25°, 32.71°, 46.96°, and 55.72°. Thus, data suggested
that the peaks position were slightly altered due to biofield
energy treatment. Moreover, the lattice parameter, unit cell
volume, density and molecular weight did not show any
significant changes in treated sample as compared to the
control.
Fig. 2. Effect of biofield energy treatment on lattice parameter, unit cell
volume, density, and molecular weight of calcium carbide.
International Journal of Materials Science and Applications 2015; 4(6): 390-395 393
Fig. 3. X-ray diffractogram of praseodymium oxide powder.
Table 1. The crystal structure parameter calcium carbide and praseodymium oxide powder.
Compound
Group Lattice parameter (Å)
Unit cell volume (×10
-
23
cm
3
)
Density (g/cc)
Molecular weight (g/mol) Crystallite size (nm)
CaC
2
Control
8.36 38.45 2.23 64.55 98.19
T1 8.32 39.15 2.19 65.73 74.35
T2 8.64 40.26 2.13 67.58 52.93
Pr
6
O
11
Control
5.47 16.37 6.98 1030.85 71.09
T1 5.47 16.36 6.98 1030.33 71.09
Fig. 4. FT-IR spectra of calcium carbide powder.
3.2. FT-IR Spectroscopy
The FT-IR spectra of control and treated CaC
2
samples are
presented in Fig. 4. It showed the absorption bands at 3641
cm
-1
, 3641 cm
-1
and 3643 cm
-1
in control, T1, and T2,
respectively, which can be attributed to –OH stretching
vibration. The emergence of these peak could be due to
moisture absorption by the sample. Further, doublet found at
1413 and 1366 in control was due to C=C stretching
vibrations, however, it was shifted to 1473 cm
-1
and 1419 cm
-
1
in T1; and 1521 cm
-1
and 1458 cm
-1
in T2 sample [26]. In
addition, the absorption peak attributing to Ca-C bond was
found at 414 cm
-1
(control) that was shifted to higher
wavenumber 422 cm
-1
and 418 cm
-1
in T1 and T2,
respectively.
It was reported that the wavenumber (
!
is directly related
to the bond force constant (k) as following [27]:
!
"
#$
%
&
'
(1)
Here, µ is the effective mass of atoms, which form the
bond and c is the speed of light (3×10
8
m/s). The equation
inferred that the increase in bond force constant can lead to
shift the absorption wavenumber toward higher side.
Previously, our group reported that biofield energy treatment
has altered the bond length of Ti-O bond in barium titanate
[28]. Based on this, it is assumed that the bond force constant
of C=C bond probably increased after biofield energy
treatment.
Fig. 5 shows the FT-IR spectra of control and treated
Pr
6
O
11
samples. The spectra shows the absorption bands at
3445 cm
-1
in control and treated Pr
6
O
11
sample, which can be
attributed to –OH stretching vibration. The emergence of
these peak could be due to moisture absorption by the sample
394 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Structural
Properties of Calcium Carbide and Praseodymium Oxide
[27]. Further, the peak observed at 593 cm
-1
(control) was
shifted to higher wavenumber 598 cm
-1
in treated sample,
which was assigned to stretching vibration Pr-O [29]. Based
on equation (1), it is assumed that the biofield energy
treatment possibly increased the bond force constant of Pr-O
bond, due to which the peak was shifted to higher
wavenumber in the treated sample as compared to the
control. Further, it is possible that the energy transferred
through biofield energy treatment probably acted on the
atomic bonding level to cause these modifications.
Fig. 5. FT-IR spectra of praseodymium oxide powder.
4. Conclusions
The XRD data revealed that the biofield energy treatment
has increased the lattice parameter of unit cell by 3.35% in
treated CaC
2
sample as compared to the control. The density of
treated CaC
2
sample was reduced upto 4.49% and molecular
weight was increased upto 4.70% as compared to the control.
The crystallite size of CaC
2
was reduced from 98.19 nm
(control) to 52.93 nm in treated CaC
2
sample as compared to
the control. The decrease in crystallite size in treated sample
may enhance the reactivity of CaC
2
in the production of
acetylene gas. The FT-IR analysis exhibited that the absorption
band attributed to C=C stretching vibrations was shifted to
higher wavenumber as compared to the control. Thus, above
data suggested that biofield energy treatment has considerable
impact on the physical and structural properties of CaC
2
.
Besides, in Pr
6
O
11
, the XRD did not show any significant
changes in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight
after biofield treatment. However, the FT-IR revealed that the
absorption band attributing to Pr-O stretching vibration was
shifted from 593 cm
-1
(control) to higher wavenumber 598 cm
-
1
in the treated Pr
6
O
11
sample. Therefore, the biofield energy
treatment could be applied to modify the physical and
structural properties of CaC
2
and Pr
6
O
11
powder for the use
chemical industries respectively.
Acknowledgments
Authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Cheng Dong of
NLSC, Institute of Physics, and Chinese academy of sciences
for supporting in analyzing the XRD data using Powder-X
software. The authors would also like to thank Trivedi
Science, Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi Testimonials
for their support during the work.
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