Physicochemical and Spectral Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated 4-Methylbenzoic Acid

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American Journal of Chemical Engineering
2015; 3(6): 99-106
Published online December 21, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajche)
doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20150306.14
ISSN: 2330-8605 (Print); ISSN: 2330-8613 (Online)
Physicochemical and Spectral Characterization of Biofield
Energy Treated 4-Methylbenzoic Acid
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Ragini Singh
2
,
Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
publication@trivedisrl.com (S. Jana)
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Ragini Singh, Snehasis Jana. Physicochemical and Spectral
Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated 4-Methylbenzoic Acid. American Journal of Chemical Engineering.
Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 99-106. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20150306.14
Abstract:
The present study was aimed to analyse the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectral
properties of 4-MBA. The compound was divided into two parts which are referred as the control and treated sample. The treated
sample was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and analysed with respect to the control sample. The various
analytical techniques used were X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed the
alteration in the relative intensities of the peaks as well as reduction in the average crystallite size (24.62%) of the treated sample
as compared to the control. The surface area analysis revealed a slight reduction in the surface area of the treated sample. The
differential scanning calorimetry analysis reported a slight increase in the melting point while significant reduction in the latent
heat of fusion of the treated sample (39.96 J/g) as compared to the control (133.72 J/g). Moreover, the TGA thermogram of the
treated sample revealed the reduction in the onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature as compared to
the control. However, the FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any significant alteration as compared to their
respective control spectra. The overall data indicated the improved physical and thermal properties of the biofield treated 4-MBA
sample that might be helpful in increasing the reaction kinetics, where it will be used as a reaction intermediate.
Keywords:
4-Methylbenzoic Acid, Biofield Energy Treatment, Reaction Kinetics, Thermal Analysis
1. Introduction
Benzoic acid is belonging to the family of aromatic
carboxylic acids and has wide applications in the
manufacturing of dyes, plastics, insect repellents, and some
cosmetics [1]. Its salt derivatives are also used in
preservation of food ingredients, e.g. sodium benzoate [2]. It
has anti-fungal properties and causes the growth inhibition of
bacteria, moulds, and yeasts, which makes it suitable
candidate for use as a preservative [3]. In cosmetic industry,
it is used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, lipsticks, and the
facial cleanser. Similarly, in pharmaceutical industry it acts
as a basic constituent of Whitfields ointment i.e. used for
treating the fungal skin diseases. Other pharmaceutical uses
include as a topical antiseptic, analgesic, expectorant, and
decongestant [4, 5]. 4-Methylbenzoic acid (4-MBA) is a
substituted benzoic acid, which is also used in the chemical
and pharmaceutical industries. It is a crystalline solid having
solubility in acetone but insoluble in the water [6]. It acts as
an intermediate in the manufacturing of polyethylene
terephthalate for the oxidation of p-xylene to terephthalic
acid [7]. Other uses include as an intermediate for synthesis
of pesticides, polymer stabilizers, light sensitive compounds,
pigments, dyestuffs, and other organic and pharmaceutical
compounds [8].
The chemical kinetics of any reaction depends on the
relative rate of all chemical reactions involved as well as the
physicochemical properties of the intermediate compound [9].
It was previously reported that the parameters such as
crystallite size, surface area, and thermal properties are
important determinants of the rate of reaction [10, 11]. Hence,
the current study was designed for analysing the impact of
biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical as well as
spectral properties of 4-MBA.
American Journal of Chemical Engineering 2015; 3(6): 99-106 100
The human bioenergy concept was originated thousand
years back and nowadays, it is scientifically termed as the
biologically produced energy fields that are basically related
with the regulatory and communication functions inside the
body [12]. Besides, the practitioners of this energy fields
have the ability to channelize the supraphysical energy and
intentionally direct this energy towards the target [13]. It has
been reported that the biofield energy therapies have their
therapeutic potential for improving the functional ability of
arthritis patients, enhancing the personal well-being, and
decreasing the pain and anxiety [14, 15]. Thus, a human can
harness the energy from the environment and can transmit
into any living or non-living object(s). The objects receive
this energy and respond in a useful manner. This
phenomenon is known as biofield energy treatment. Mr.
Trivedi is a well-known practitioner of biofield energy
treatment, which is also called as The Trivedi Effect
®
. His
treatment is known for its impact in various microorganisms
[16], plants [17], and agricultural products [18]. The impact
of biofield energy treatment was also reported on various
organic and pharmaceutical compounds [19]. Hence, after
considering the importance of 4-MBA as an intermediate
compound, the current study was designed to analyse the
impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical
and spectral properties of 4-MBA. The techniques used in
the study were X-ray diffraction, surface area analysis,
thermal analysis, and spectroscopic analyses using Fourier
transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy.
2. Materials and Methods
4-Methylbenzoic acid was procured from Loba Chemie Pvt.
Ltd., India. In treatment methodology, the procured sample
was divided into two parts, and one part was handed over to
Mr. Trivedi in sealed pack under standard laboratory
conditions. Mr. Trivedi provided the treatment to this part
through his unique energy transmission process, without
touching the sample; and this part was coded as the treated
sample. The other part was remained as untreated and coded
as the control sample. Both the samples were subsequently
analysed using various analytical techniques as mentioned
below and their results were compared.
2.1. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Study
The Phillips Holland PW 1710 X-ray diffractometer was
used to obtain the X-ray powder diffractograms of the control
and treated samples. The instrument was equipped with a
copper anode with nickel filter (operating parameters: 35kV,
20mA, and 1.54056Å wavelength radiation). The Bragg’s
angle at which peaks were obtained was recorded and
compared with the control sample for any deviation in angle.
Besides, the data was used to calculate the average crystallite
size (G) using Scherrer equation:
G = kλ/(bCosθ)
Here, k is constant (0.94), λ is the X-ray wavelength (0.154
nm), b in radians is the full-width at half of the peak and θ is
the corresponding Bragg’s angle.
2.2. Surface Area Analysis
The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyser,
Smart SORB 90 was used to calculate the surface area of the
control and treated sample. It has a measuring range of 0.2
m
2
/g to 1000m
2
/g. The percent change in surface area was
calculated to determine the difference between control and the
treated samples.
2.3. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
DSC of Perkin Elmer/Pyris-1 was used for studying the
parameters related to melting behaviour of the 4-MBA sample.
The DSC curves were recorded under air atmosphere (5
mL/min) and a heating rate of 10°C/min in the temperature
range of 50°C to 350°C. From DSC curve, the melting
temperature and latent heat of fusion (∆H) of control and
treated samples were obtained and compared to analyse the
impact of biofield treatment.
2.4. Thermogravimetric Analysis / Differential Thermal
Analysis (TGA/DTA)
The thermal degradation pattern of 4-MBA was analysed
using Mettler Toledo simultaneous thermogravimetric
analyser (TGA/DTA). The temperature range was selected
from room temperature to 320°C with a heating rate of 5°C
/min under air atmosphere. The data was obtained in the form
of TGA, DTA, and DTG (1
st
derivative thermogram) curve.
The impact of biofield treatment was analysed by comparing
the results of these curves in the treated sample with that of
control sample.
2.5. Spectroscopic Analysis
2.5.1. Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic
Characterization
The FT-IR spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier
transform infrared spectrometer (Japan) in the frequency
range 4000-450 cm
-1
. The spectra were obtained in the form of
wavenumber vs. percentage transmittance. The obtained
spectra of control and treated samples were compared for
analysing the impact of biofield energy on the bond length and
bond angle of various functional groups present in the
medium.
2.5.2. UV-Vis Spectroscopic Analysis
The UV-Vis spectrum of 4-MBA was recorded in
methanol solvent by Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series
spectrophotometer. The spectrum was recorded over a
wavelength range of 200-400 nm with 1 cm quartz cell and a
slit width of 2.0 nm. The analysis was performed to evaluate
the effect of biofield energy treatment on the spectral
properties of 4-MBA sample.
101 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical and Spectral Characterization of
Biofield Energy Treated 4-Methylbenzoic Acid
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. X-ray Diffraction (XRD)
A series of sharp peaks were observed in the diffractograms
of control and treated samples (Fig. 1) in the regions of
10º<2θ>40º. The control sample showed the most intense
peak at equal to 17.27º; however, in treated sample it was
observed at 26.65º. It indicated that the biofield treatment
might cause an alteration in the relative intensities of XRD
peaks in the treated sample as compared to the control. It is
reported that the alteration in relative intensities of the peaks
may occur due to change in the crystal morphology [20].
Besides, the 4-MBA molecules have O-H···O carboxylic acid
dimer synthon (structural unit within the molecule) in its
crystal structure [21]. Hence, it is assumed that the biofield
energy treatment might cause some alteration in these synthon
molecules that further affect the relative intensities of the
peaks. Further, the average crystallite size of the control and
treated samples were calculated using the Scherrer equation.
The data reported that the crystallite size of the control sample
was 125.99 nm, whereas in the treated sample it was found as
94.97 nm. It revealed that the average crystallite size of the
treated sample was significantly reduced by 24.62% as
compared to the control. The decreased crystallite size may be
due to biofield energy, which might induce strain in the lattice
and that possibly resulted into fracturing of grains into sub
grains and hence decreased crystallite size [22]. 4-MBA is
used as an intermediate in the synthesis of many chemical and
pharmaceutical compounds; hence, the decrease in crystallite
size may lead to fasten the rate kinetics, which ultimately
enhances the percentage yield of the end products [11].
Fig. 1. XRD diffractograms of control and treated samples of 4-methylbenzoic acid.
American Journal of Chemical Engineering 2015; 3(6): 99-106 102
3.2. Surface Area Analysis
The surface area analysis was done to observe the impact of
biofield energy treatment on the surface area of the treated
sample, which is indirectly related with the particle size. The
results showed that the control sample had a surface area of
0.203 m
2
/g; however, the treated sample showed a surface area
of 0.200 m
2
/g. The result showed a slight decrease (1.48%) in
the surface area of the treated sample as compared to the
control. The possible reason behind it might be the biofield
energy treatment that may cause some alteration in the particle
size of the treated sample [23].
3.3. DSC Analysis
The DSC analysis data (Table 1) reported the presence of
endothermic curve in the control sample at 180.70°C that was
slightly shifted to higher temperature and observed at
181.61°C in the treated sample. The endothermic curve was
due to the melting of 4-MBA sample. Moreover, the onset and
endset temperature were also shifted correspondingly to
higher temperature in the treated sample as compared to the
control. The slight increase in melting temperature might
occur due to decrease in the surface area of the treated sample.
Besides, the change in crystal symmetry due to biofield energy
treatment might be another reason for this observation [24].
Table 1. DSC analysis of control and treated samples of 4-methylbenzoic acid.
Parameter Control Treated
Onset temperature (°C) 179.23 180.48
Peak temperature (°C) 180.70 181.61
Endset temperature (°C) 181.21 183.51
Latent heat of fusion ∆H (J/g) 133.72 39.96
Fig. 2. Percent change in onset temperature, T
max
and latent heat of fusion in
biofield energy treated 4-methylbenzoic acid.
Further, the ∆H values were recorded from the
thermograms and the data showed that the enthalpy change
during the phase change of 4-MBA from solid to liquid [25]
was 133.72 J/g in the control sample; whereas, it was reduced
to 39.96 J/g in the treated sample (Fig. 2). As the enthalpy is
related with the internal energy, the reduction in its value in
the treated sample suggested that the treated sample was
already in a high energy state, hence need less energy to
undergo the phase change i.e. melting [26].
3.4. TGA/DTA Analysis
The TGA/DTA studies are helpful in analysing the thermal
decomposition pattern of the sample during heating. The
TGA/DTA thermograms of the control and treated samples
of 4-MBA are shown in Fig. 3. The TGA thermogram
represents the onset and endset temperature of degradation
along with the percent weight loss of the sample during
heating. The control sample showed the thermal degradation
in the range of 174-230°C with a weight loss of 68.54% of
the initial weight of the sample. This temperature range is
similar to the melting range of 4-MBA sample as reported by
the DSC analysis. Hence, the weight loss of the sample might
be due to the volatilization of the 4-MBA sample. Besides,
the treated sample showed the weight loss of 64.29% in the
temperature range 166-234°C. The data showed a significant
decrease in the onset of thermal degradation that might be
related to the early volatilization of the treated sample as
compared to the control. The DTA curve showed two peaks
in the thermograms of the control and treated samples. In
control sample, the first peak was observed at 178.92°C and
the second peak was observed at 209.46°C. The first peak
was considered as the melting peak, whereas the second peak
was assigned to the thermal degradation of the sample.
Similarly, in treated sample, the corresponding peaks were
observed at 181.31°C and 201.26°C. The DTA data showed
the increase in melting temperature along with the reduction
in the thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample
as compared to the control. The observation was supported
by the DSC and TGA analysis. Besides, DTG thermogram
data showed that T
max
was observed at 198.31°C in the
control sample while 190.59°C in the treated 4-MBA sample.
A possible reason for this reduction in T
max
is that biofield
energy treatment might cause some alteration in internal
energy, which results into earlier volatilization of treated
4-MBA sample as compared to the control. The similar
results were also reported by the other biofield treated
benzoic acid derivatives [27]. Moreover, the state of reactant
may affect the rate of reaction as the gases react faster than
solid and liquids [28]. Apart from that, it was previously
reported that vapour phase reaction can be more beneficial as
compared to liquid phase reaction in terms of reaction time,
generation of undesired by-products and objectionable
amounts of odour [29, 30]. Hence, the significant reduction
in the onset temperature and T
max
(Fig. 2) suggested that
biofield treated 4-MBA can be used as an intermediate in
various chemical reactions with high reaction rate and
increased percentage yield of end product.
-4.6
-3.89
-70.12
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Percent change
Onset
Temperature
Latent heat
of fusion
T
max
103 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical and Spectral Characterization of
Biofield Energy Treated 4-Methylbenzoic Acid
Fig. 3. TGA/DTA thermogram of control and treated samples of 4-methylbenzoic acid.
3.5. Spectroscopic Analysis
3.5.1. FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis
The FT-IR spectra of 4-MBA (control and treated samples)
are shown in Fig. 4. It showed similar kind of peaks in both,
the control and treated samples and at similar frequencies. The
peaks in range 2976-2551 cm
-1
in the control sample were
observed due to the H-bonded O-H stretching and C-H
stretching groups. In the treated sample, the similar peaks
were observed in the frequency range of 2976-2553 cm
-1
. The
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