Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Peptone And Malmgren Modified Terrestrial Orchid Medium

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American Journal of Bioscience and
Bioengineering
2015; 3(6): 169-177
Published online December 21, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/bio)
doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20150306.15
ISSN: 2328-5885 (Print); ISSN: 2328-5893 (Online)
Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Peptone
and Malmgren Modified Terrestrial Orchid Medium
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
,
Rakesh Kumar Mishra
2
, Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
publication@trivedisrl.com (S. Jana)
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Snehasis Jana. Physicochemical Evaluation
of Biofield Treated Peptone and Malmgren Modified Terrestrial Orchid Medium. American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering.
Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 169-177. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20150306.15
Abstract:
Peptone and Malmgren modified terrestrial orchid (MMTO) has been used as a growth medium for tissue culture
applications. This research study was conducted to explore the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on
physicochemical properties of peptone and MMTO. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control
group was kept aside as untreated, and the treated group was received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated
samples were further subjected to characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, particle size analyzer and surface area
analyzer. The XRD analysis revealed the amorphous nature of the control and treated peptone samples. The DSC analysis showed
an increase in thermal denaturation temperature of the treated peptone (196.22°C) as compared to the control sample (141.20°C).
Additionally, the exothermic peak of treated sample (280°C) was increased as compared to the control (270°C). The DSC of
control and treated MMTO showed the absence of the melting temperature in their respective DSC thermograms. The TGA
analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (172°C) with respect to the control (170°C).
Nevertheless, the TGA thermogram of the treated MMTO (293.96°C) showed an increase in maximum thermal degradation
temperature (T
max
) as compared with the control (281.41°C). It indicated the good thermal stability of the treated peptone and
MMTO samples. The FT-IR result of the treated peptone showed an upward shift in C-H (2817→2833 cm
-1
), and amide I
(1635→1641 cm
-1
), stretching in the treated sample with respect to the control sample. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of the
treated MMTO showed an increase in the frequency of the C-H (2817→2833 cm
-1
) and amide I (1596→1606 cm
-1
) bands as
compared to the control. Particle size analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in d
50
(average particle size) and d
99
(size
exhibited by 99% of particles) by 9.3 and 41.4%, respectively with respect to the control. Surface area analysis showed increase in
surface area by 4.3% in the treated peptone. Altogether, the results corroborated that the biofield energy treatment had altered the
physical, thermal and spectral properties of peptone and MMTO. It is assumed that biofield treated peptone and MMTO could be
utilized as potential candidates for cell culture applications.
Keywords:
Biofield Energy Treatment, Peptone, Malmgren Modified Terrestrial Orchid, Thermal Analysis
1. Introduction
Tissue culture is a generally used term for the removal of
cells, tissues, or organs from an animal and their placement
into an artificial environment conductive to growth. It is well
known as the techniques of keeping tissues alive and growing
in an appropriate culture medium. It was reported that
growing tissues of living organism outside the body are made
possible in an appropriate culture medium, containing a
mixture of nutrient either in solid or liquid form. At present
significant progress has been made in the field of animal cell
culture [1, 2]. Generally a growth medium or cell culture
medium is developed to assist the growth of microorganisms
or cells [3]. There are different type of medium have been
used to grow many kinds of cells. There are two types of
growth media, which commonly used for supporting the
growth of microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria. It was
reported that few organisms such as fastidious require
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 2015; 3(6): 169-177 170
specialized environment due to complex nutritional
requirements. Additionally, viruses that are known as
obligate intracellular parasites require tissue culture medium
consisting of living cells [4]. Peptone (bacteriological) is
obtained through enzymatic digestion of selected fresh meat.
Due to its high nutrition value it assists the growth of the
various microorganisms and used for the identification of the
bacteria by performing various biochemical tests.
Additionally, due to its nutritious nature, mainly at lower
dilutions, for the recombinant cell lines it has been used as an
additive medium for the production of recombinant
therapeutic protein in high-density perfusion culture of
mammalian cells [5]. The stability of proteins at higher
temperature is a major issue that hampers its applications in
many targeted areas [6, 7]. Bischof et al. reported that it is
imperative to understand that how protein loses stability and
to what extent one can control this through the thermal
environment as well as through chemical and mechanical
modification of the protein structure [8].
On the other hand, Malmgren modified terrestrial orchid
(MMTO) has been used as tissue culture medium for in vitro
culture of orchids. It is mainly composed of glycine, casein
hydrolysate, and agar as nutrients to support the culture
growth. However, it is known to be hygroscopic in nature
that might affect its end uses as plant tissue culture growth
medium [9]. Therefore, some alternative strategies should be
considered to alleviate the thermal stability of peptone and
hygroscopic nature of MMTO. Recently, biofield energy
treatment was used to modify the physicochemical properties
of various materials.
Biofield energy treatments are comprised of practices
based on subtle energy field and generally it reflects the
concept that human beings are infused with this form of
energy [10]. It was shown that a unique bioenergetic field
surrounds and permeates the human body [11]. This
bioenergetic field controls the human wellbeing and during
disease condition this unique field is depleted [12]. Recently
some medical technologies were deployed to measure this
human biofield [13]. Moreover, biofield energy therapies are
categorized under complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM). CAM is approved by National Centre for
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)/
National Institute of Health (NIH) as an alternative treatment
in health care sector [14]. Therefore, it is envisaged that
human beings have the ability to harness the energy from the
environment/Universe and it can transmit into any object
(living or non-living) around the Globe. The object(s) are
always received the energy and responding in a useful
manner that is called biofield energy.
Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi is known to transform the
characteristics of various living and non-living things using
his unique biofield energy. This biofield energy treatment is
also known as The Trivedi Effect
®
. This unique biofield
treatment has altered the characteristics of pathogenic
microbes [15] and improved the production in agriculture
[16]. Moreover, biofield energy has modified the
physicochemical properties of metal [17], drugs [18] and
organic products [19].
After conceiving above-mentioned excellent outcome from
biofield energy treatment and properties of peptone and
MMTO, this work was planned to investigate the impact of
this treatment on its physicochemical properties.
2. Materials and Methods
Peptone and Malmgren modified terrestrial orchid
(MMTO) medium were procured from Himedia Laboratories,
India, and the samples were separated into two parts. The one
part was kept aside as a control sample, while the other part
was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy
treatment and coded as the treated sample. Both the groups
were in sealed pack, while the treated group was handed over
to Mr. Trivedi for biofield energy treatment under standard
laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi gave the energy treatment
through his energy transmission process to the treated
samples without touching the samples. The control and
treated samples were characterized by different analytical
techniques such as X-ray diffraction, differential scanning
calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, and surface area
analyzer. All the experimental techniques were not assessed
by quantitative analysis with this analytical data, does not
require replication of points or statistical analysis.
2.1. X-ray Diffraction (XRD)
XRD analysis of control and treated peptone was evaluated
using X-ray diffractometer system, Phillips, Holland PW
1710 which consist of a copper anode with nickel filter. XRD
system had a radiation of wavelength 1.54056 Å.
2.2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
The control and treated samples (peptone and MMTO)
were analyzed using Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer DSC at a 10°C
/min heating rate and the air was purged at a flow rate of 5
mL/min. The predetermined amount of sample was kept in an
aluminum pan and closed with a lid. A reference sample was
prepared using a blank aluminum pan. The percentage
change in latent heat of fusion was calculated using
following equations:
% Change in latent heat of fusion
=
[∆   ∆ ]
∆  × !""
(1)
Where, ∆H
Control
and ∆H
Treated
are the latent heat of fusion
of control and treated samples, respectively.
2.3. Thermogravimetric Analysis-Differential Thermal
Analysis (TGA-DTA)
A Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA and differential
thermal analyzer (DTA) was used to investigate the thermal
stability of control and treated samples (peptone and MMTO).
The rate of heating was 5°C /min and samples were heated in
the range of room temperature to 400°C under air atmosphere.
171 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Peptone and
Malmgren Modified Terrestrial Orchid Medium
2.4. FT-IR Spectroscopy
The FT-IR spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier
transform infrared spectrometer (Japan) with the frequency
range of 4000-500 cm
-1
.
2.5. Particle Size Analysis
A Sympetac Helos-BF Laser Particle Size Analyzer with a
detection range of 0.1 µm to 875 µm was used to analyze the
particle size distribution. Average particle size d
50
and d
99
,
size exhibited by 99% of powder particles were computed
from laser diffraction data. The d
50
and d
99
were calculated
by the following formula:
Percentage change in d
50
size = 100 × (d
50
treated- d
50
control)/ d
50
control.
Percentage Change in d
99
size = 100× (d
99
treated- d
99
control)/ d
99
control.
2.6. Surface Area Analysis
A surface area analyzer, SMART SORB 90 BET, which
had a detection range of 0.1-100 m
2
/g was used to evaluate
the surface area of the control and treated peptone samples.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. X-ray Diffraction Pattern
Figure 1. XRD diffractogram of the control and treated peptone.
XRD diffractogram of the control and treated peptone are
presented in Fig. 1. XRD diffractogram of the control
peptone showed a broad peak at Braggs angle 22º. This peak
was mainly due to amorphous regions present in the sample.
The diffractogram showed few intense XRD peaks at 31.69º
and 45.4 that might be associated with semicrystalline
regions present in the peptone. Likewise, the XRD
diffractogram of the treated peptone showed XRD peaks at
Bragg’s angle 23º, 31.76º, and 45.44º. All these peaks
exhibited both amorphous non-regular pattern and
semicrystalline regions present in the treated sample.
Additionally, the result indicated an increase in the Braggs
angle of the XRD peaks 31.69º→31.76º and 45.41º→45.44º
in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. It
was reported that presence of tensile stress in molecules
might cause increase in Bragg’s angle of the samples [20].
Thus, it is assumed that biofield energy treatment might
cause the emergence of tensile stress in the treated peptone
molecules that led to increase in Bragg’s angle of the sample
as compared to the control.
3.2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry
DSC is a well-known technique to evaluate the thermal
properties such as glass transition, melting temperature,
crystallization temperature and latent heat of vaporization in
the samples. The DSC thermograms of control and treated
peptone are presented in Fig. 2. The DSC thermogram of the
control peptone showed an endothermic transition at
141.20°C. It was reported that major endothermic peak
observed (from 0 to 180°C) in different proteins such as
gelatin, soy protein, sodium casein and corn gluten have been
attributed to the loss of residual water or hydrogen bond
disruption between the molecules [21-23]. This endothermic
peak can also be attributed to thermal denaturation of the
control sample. However, in the DSC thermogram of treated
peptone the endothermic peak appeared was broad in nature
and the peak was centered at 196.22°C. This indicated the
substantial increase in the thermal denaturation temperature
of the treated protein (peptone) sample as compared to the
control. Tang et al. observed a similar increase in thermal
denaturation temperature during their studies on
transglutaminase treated soy protein isolates. They proposed
that formation of covalent crosslinks along with subsequent
hydrophobic interaction between protein and microbial
transglutaminase might increase the thermal stability of the
sample [24]. Hence, it is hypothesized that biofield energy
treatment perhaps induced covalent crosslinking and
hydrophobic protein interactions that led to increase the
thermal denaturation temperature of the treated peptone as
compared to the control. Additionally, the DSC thermograms
of the control and treated peptone showed the presence of
exothermic peaks at around 270°C and 280°C, respectively.
This indicated an increase in the exothermic peak of the
treated peptone as compared to the control. The protein
architecture is maintained by inherent hydrogen bonding and
electrostatic interactions, whereas the thermal stability is
governed by hydrophobic interactions. Researchers have
elaborated that if the hydrophilic interactions retaining the
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 2015; 3(6): 169-177 172
tertiary protein structure are broken by heating, the
hydrophobic regions hidden inside the protein structure will
be exposed towards the surface and merge with other
hydrophobic proteins to form aggregates. Therefore, it was
shown that exothermic peaks in proteins arise due to the
protein aggregation [25, 26]. Similarly, it is assumed that
biofield energy treatment might cause more protein
aggregation in peptone that lead to increase in exothermic
peak as compared to the control.
The latent heat of fusion of the control and treated samples
are recorded from the DSC thermograms. The latent heat of
fusion of the control peptone was 167.61 J/g, and it was
increased to 179.61 J/g in the treated peptone. The result
indicated 7.16% increase in latent heat of fusion of the
treated peptone as compared to the control sample. It is
assumed that biofield energy treatment might alter the
internal energy of the treated peptone that lead to increase in
latent heat of fusion as compared to the control.
The DSC thermogram of the control and treated MMTO
are presented in Fig. 3. The DSC thermogram of the control
sample showed a broad endothermic peak at 85.31°C that
may be attributed to the associated water in the control
sample. However, DSC thermograms of both control and
treated MMTO showed absence of the melting endothermic
peaks. This might be due to robust crystalline nature of the
control and treated samples that led to disappearance of the
melting peaks.
Figure 2. DSC thermogram of the control and treated peptone.
Figure 3. DSC thermogram of the control and treated MMTO.
3.3. TGA Analysis
TGA analysis is mainly used to know the thermal
properties such as thermal stability, thermal decomposition,
and oxidation of the materials. The TGA thermograms of the
control and treated peptone are presented in Fig. 4. The TGA
thermogram of the control peptone showed two-step thermal
degradation pattern. The first thermal degradation process
started at around 170°C and terminated at 280°C. The second
thermal degradation event started at around 292°C and
terminated at 375°C. During both the thermal events the
control samples lost 24.77% and 21.39% from the initial
sample weight. The TGA thermogram of the treated peptone
also exhibited two-step thermal degradation pattern. The
thermal degradation started at around 172°C, and it stopped
at 250°C. Subsequently, the second thermal degradation
process began at around 255°C and ended at 385°C. The
treated peptone lost 17.38% and 27.60% weight from its
initial sample weight. The result suggested that onset of
thermal degradation was increased slightly in treated peptone
(172°C) as compared to the control (170°C). The weight loss
of the treated peptone sample was less (17.38%) as compared
to the control sample (24.77%) that may be inferred as an
increase in thermal stability of the treated peptone with
respect to the control. The maximum thermal degradation
temperature (T
max
) was recorded from the Derivative
thermogravimetry (DTG) thermogram of the samples. The
T
max
of the control and treated peptone were 228.32°C and
216.98°C, respectively.
173 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Peptone and
Malmgren Modified Terrestrial Orchid Medium
TGA thermograms of the control and treated MMTO are
depicted in Fig. 5. The TGA thermogram of the control
sample showed two-step thermal degradation pattern. The
thermal degradation started at around 189°C and terminated
at 220°C. The second thermal degradation commenced at
around 250°C and stopped at 333°C. During this process, the
control sample lost 6.68% and 43.72% of its initial weight.
Nevertheless, the treated MMTO sample started to degrade
thermally at around 241°C and stopped at 390°C. The treated
sample showed major weight loss by 60.88% during this
process. The DTG thermogram of the control sample showed
T
max
at 281.41°C, and it was increased up to 293.96°C in the
treated sample. This may be inferred as the higher thermal
stability of the treated MMTO as compared to the control
sample. In recent literature, it was reported that crosslinking
and conformational changes might increase the thermal
stability of a compound [27]. Thus, it is assumed that biofield
treatment may act as a crosslinker and induced
conformational changes that lead to increase the thermal
stability of the treated sample.
Figure 4. TGA thermograms of the control and treated peptone.
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