Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, et al. (2015) Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Bioeld Treated
Butylated Hydroxytoluene. J Food Ind Microbiol 1: 101.
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Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000101J Food Ind Microbiol, an open access journal
some alternate strategies, which could improve the stability of BHT by
altering their physical, thermal or structural and bonding properties.
Nowadays, bioeld energy treatment is known to alter
physicochemical properties of various organic and metallic compounds
[16-19]. e bioeld energy healing therapies are considered as
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by National Center
for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)/National
Institute of Health (NIH) and are based on alteration in putative
energy elds and consciousness [20,21]. e bioeld energy is related
to the energy associated with the human body that depends upon the
physiological and mental health of the human. is energy can be
exchanged with the environment through natural exchange process
. A human has the ability to harness the energy from environment
or universe and can transmit in any living or non-living object(s)
around the Universe. e objects always receive the energy and
responding in a useful way, this process is known as bioeld energy
treatment. Moreover, the bioeld therapies are reported for the
reduction in pain, anxiety and tension . Mr. Trivedi is well known
to possess the unique bioeld energy treatment (e Trivedi Eect
which is reported to alter the properties such as growth and yield of
plants in the eld of agriculture [24,25]. e eect was also reported on
phenotypic characters of microorganisms in the eld of microbiology
[26,27]. Hence, the present study was designed to analyse the impact
of bioeld energy treatment on various physicochemical properties of
BHT using XRD, DSC, TGA/DTG, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic
Materials and Methods
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was procured from S D Fine
Chemicals Pvt. Ltd., India. Aer procurement, the BHT sample was
divided into two parts; coded as control and treated, and stored as per
e treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld energy
treatment. For this, the treated sample was handed over to Mr. Trivedi
in sealed pack for bioeld energy treatment under standard laboratory
conditions. Mr. Trivedi provided the treatment to the treated group
through his energy transmission process. e bioeld treated sample
was returned in the same sealed condition for further characterization
using XRD, DSC, TGA, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques.
X-ray diraction (XRD) study
X-ray powder diractogram of control and treated samples were
obtained on Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray diractometer system.
e X-ray generator was equipped with a copper anode with nickel
lter operating at 35 kV and 20 mA. e wavelength of radiation used
by the XRD system was 1.54056 Å. e data were collected from the 2θ
range of 10°-99.99° with a step size of 0.02° and a counting time of 0.5
seconds per step.
e crystallite (G) was calculated from the Scherrer equation with
the method based on the width of the diraction patterns obtained in
the X-ray reected crystalline region.
G = kλ/(bCosθ)
Where, k is the equipment constant (0.94), λ is the X-ray wavelength
(0.154 nm), b in radians is the full-width at half of the peak and θ the
corresponding Bragg angle. Other parameters viz. lattice parameter
and unit cell volume, were calculated using PowderX soware. Further,
these parameters were used to calculate the molecular weight and
density of the control and treated sample.
Percent change in crystallite size was calculated using the following
Percent change in crystallite size = [(G
denotes the crystallite size of control and treated
powder samples, respectively. Similarly the percent change in lattice
parameter, unit cell volume, molecular weight, and density was
calculated to analyse the impact of bioeld treatment on crystal
parameters of treated sample as compared to the control.
e molecular weight of atom was calculated using following
Molecular weight = number of electrons × weight of an electron
+ number of neutrons × weight of a neutron + number of protons ×
weight of a proton.
e weight of all atoms in a molecule was multiplied by the
Avogadro number (6.023 × 10
) to obtain the molecular weight in g/
Dierential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study
DSC analysis of control and treated sample was carried out using
Perkin Elmer/Pyris-1. Each sample was accurately weighed and
hermetically sealed in aluminium pans and heated at a rate of 10°C/
min under air atmosphere (5 mL/min). e thermogram was collected
over the temperature range of 50°C to 250°C. An empty pan sealed with
cover pan was used as a reference sample. From DCS curve, the melting
temperature and latent heat of fusion were obtained.
e percent change in latent heat of fusion was obtained using
following equations to observe the dierence in thermal properties of
treated BHT sample as compared to the control:
% change in lat
100ent heat of fusion
denotes the latent heat of fusion of
control and treated samples, respectively.
ermogravimetric analysis/Derivative ermogravimetry
e eect of temperature on the stability of the control and treated
sample of BHT was analysed using Mettler Toledo simultaneous
thermogravimetric analyser (TGA/DTG). e samples were heated
from room temperature to 350°C with a heating rate of 5°C/min under
air atmosphere. From TGA/DTG curve, the onset temperature T
(temperature at which sample start losing weight) and T
thermal degradation temperature) were recorded.
Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic
For FT-IR characterization, the treated sample was divided into two
groups named T1 and T2. e samples were crushed into ne powder
for analysis. e powdered sample was mixed in spectroscopic grade
KBr in an agate mortar and pressed into pellets with a hydraulic press.
FT-IR spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform infrared
spectrometer (Japan). FT-IR spectra are generated by the absorption of