Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

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Modern Chemistry
2016; 4(3): 30-37
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/mc
doi: 10.11648/j.mc.20160403.11
ISSN: 2329-1818 (Print); ISSN: 2329-180X (Online)
Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield
Energy Treated 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas
Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Kalyan Kumar Sethi
2
,
Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, NV, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd.,
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
publication@trivedisrl.com (S. Jana)
*
Corresponding author
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana. Determination of Isotopic
Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Modern
Chemistry. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 30-37. doi: 10.11648/j.mc.20160403.11
Received: May 10, 2016; Accepted: June 25, 2016; Published: July 13, 2016
Abstract:
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance
ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
, P
M+2
/P
M
, P
M+3
/P
M
and P
M+4
/P
M
in p-DCB using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The p-DCB
was divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as the treated sample which was
subjected to biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect
®
). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were referred the biofield treated p-DCB having
analyzed at different time intervals. The GC-MS analysis of both the control and biofield treated p-DCB indicated the presence of
the parent molecular ion peak at m/z 146 along with four major fragmentation peaks at m/z 111, 75, 55 and 50. The relative peak
intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated p-DCB were notably changed as compared to the control sample with
respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+1
/P
M
at
T1, T2, T3, and T4 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was significantly increased by 10.87, 83.90, 225.16, and 241.15%,
respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
at
T1, T2, and T3 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was enhanced by 4.55, 9.49, and 1.80%, respectively as compared to the control
sample. Beside these, another two isotopic molecular ion peaks at m/z 149 and 150 were found in the GS-MS spectra due to arise
from the contributions of various combinations of
2
H,
13
C, and
37
Cl. The isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+3
/P
M
in biofield energy
treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 15.14, 82.57, 192.43, and 218.31%, respectively as compared
to the control sample. Similarly, the P
M+4
/P
M
in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased
by 13.80, 86.66, 186.13, and 204.29%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of
P
M+1
/P
M
(
2
H/
1
H or
13
C/
12
C), P
M+2
/P
M
(
37
Cl/
35
Cl), for P
M+3
/P
M
and P
M+4
/P
M
(the probable combinations of
2
H/
1
H,
13
C/
12
C, and
37
Cl/
35
Cl) were significantly enhanced in the biofield energy treated p-DCB. The biofield treated p-DCB has shown improved
isotopic abundance ratios that might have altered the physicochemical properties, thermal properties and rate of reaction. Biofield
treated p-DCB might be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the manufacturing of
pharmaceuticals and chemicals by monitoring the rate of chemical reaction.
Keywords:
Biofield Energy Treatment, The Trivedi Effect
®
, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene,
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Isotopic Abundance
1. Introduction
1,4-Dichlorobenzene (para-dichlorobenzene or p-DCB:
C
6
H
4
Cl
2
) is a halogenated organic compound, used for
pesticide, disinfectant, deodorant, and a precursor to other
chemicals [1-3]. Moreover, it is used as a chemical
intermediate for the manufacture of dyes, agrochemicals,
31 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated
1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
pharmaceuticals, plastics, polymers, and other organic
synthesis [3]. Acute exposure via inhalation in humans
results in irritation of the skin, throat, and eyes [4]. Animal
studies have reported the effects of oral exposure to the
blood, liver, and kidney has moderate toxicity [5]. Nowadays
chlorobenzenes are widely distributed in the environment due
to point pollution sources as well as diffusive contamination
[6]. It is combustible, incompatible with oxidizing agents,
aluminium and its alloys and some plastics [3]. The low flash
point (66°C) and low melting point (53.5°C) limits its
application [7], and this is one of the reasons for the health
discomfort of personnel working with them such as
headaches, nausea, vomiting, numbness, and sleepiness [8,
9]. Thus, improvement in the physicochemical and thermal
properties (i.e. stability) of p-DCB is one of the important
properties which determine the future of the many finished
products.
The stable isotope ratio analysis is a molecular tool widely
used in several fields such as geographical, agricultural, food
authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research,
sports, etc. [10-13]. Similarly, it has great value in the early
diagnosis and evaluation of therapies [14]. The isotopic
abundance of a molecule can be altered in different ways,
such as chemical reactions, etc. [11, 15]. Mr. Trivedi’s
biofield energy treatment has the remarkable capability to
alter the isotopic abundance ratios of various compounds [16-
20]. For e.g. the stable isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
(
18
O/
16
O) in 2-naphthol was increased after biofield energy
treatment up to 163.24% [16]. The isotopic abundance ratios
of P
M+1
/P
M
(
2
H/
1
H or
13
C/
12
C) in biofield treated toluene and
p-xylene were significantly increased by 531.61 and
134.34%, respectively [17]. Biofield energy is an
electromagnetic field existed in the surround of the human
body [21-23]. The energy can be harnessed from the universe
and then, it can be applied by the healing practitioner on
living or non-living objects to achieve the alterations in the
characteristic properties. The application of The Trivedi
Effect
®
has gained significantly scientific attention in the
field of materials science [24, 25], agriculture [26, 27],
biotechnology [28, 29], pharmaceuticals [30, 31], and
medical sciences [32, 33].
The mass spectrometry (MS) technique is the primary
choice for the isotope ratio analysis [34]. The conventional
scanning technique such as gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry (GC-MS) can perform isotope ratio
measurement at low micro molar concentration levels with
sufficient precision if the molar isotope enrichment levels of
the molecule are above 0.1%. Several literatures described
that the peak height (i.e. relative abundance) in the mass
spectra is directly proportional to the relative isotopic
abundance of the sample [34-37].
Recently, it has been reported that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield
energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect
®
) has the astounding
capability to change in the physicochemical and thermal
properties of p-DCB such as reduced crystallite size, and
enhanced thermal stability that might affect the rate of
chemical reaction [24]. Based on all these aspects, the current
study was designed to investigate the isotopic abundance
ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
, P
M+2
/P
M
, P
M+3
/P
M
and P
M+4
/P
M
in biofield
energy treated p-DCB using GC-MS technique.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Chemicals and Reagents
p-DCB was purchased from S. D. Fine Chemicals Pvt.
Ltd., India All the other chemicals used in this experiment
were analytical grade purchased from local vendors.
2.2. Biofield Energy Treatment Strategies
p-DCB was divided into two parts; one was kept as a
control (un-treated) while another part was exposed to
biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect
®
) and coded as
treated sample. The sample for the treatment group was
handed over to Mr. Trivedi for biofield treatment. Mr. Trivedi
provided the biofield energy treatment through his unique
energy transmission process to the treated group for 5
minutes. The treated sample was returned in the similar
sealed condition for further analysis.
2.3. Methods of GC-MS Analysis
The GC-MS analysis was performed with the help of
Perkin Elmer/auto system XL with Turbo mass, USA. For
GC-MS analysis, the biofield energy treated sample was
analyzed at the different time point of day 0, 11, 16, and, 23
and denoted as T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. The
spectrum obtained in the form of % relative abundance vs.
mass to charge ratio (m/z), which was known as mass
spectrum.
The natural abundance of each isotope can be predicted
from the comparison of the height of the isotope peak with
respect to the base peak, i.e. relative abundance in the mass
spectra [34]. The value of the natural isotopic abundance of
the some elements are obtained from several literatures and
presented in Table 1 [34, 37].
Table 1. The isotopic composition (the natural isotopic abundance) of the elements.
Element (A) Symbol Mass % Natural Abundance A+1 Factor A+2 Factor
Hydrogen
1
H 1 99.9885
2
H
2 0.0115 0.015n
H
Carbon
12
C 12 98.892
13
C
13 1.108 1.1n
C
Oxygen
16
O 16 99.762
17
O 17 0.038 0.04n
O
Modern Chemistry 2016; 4(3): 30-37 32
Element (A) Symbol Mass % Natural Abundance A+1 Factor A+2 Factor
18
O 18 0.200 0.20n
O
Nitrogen
14
N 14 99.60
15
N 15 0.40 0.40n
N
Chlorine
35
Cl 35 75.78
37
Cl 37 24.22 32.50n
Cl
A: Element; n: no of H, C, O, Cl, etc.
The following method was used for calculating the
isotopic abundance ratio:
P
M
stands for the relative peak intensity of the parent
molecular ion [M
+
] expressed in percentage. In other way, it
indicates the probability to have A element (for e.g.
12
C,
1
H,
16
O,
14
N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the parent
molecular ion [M
+
].
P
M+1
represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic
molecular ion [(M+1)
+
] expressed in percentage
= (no. of
13
C x 1.1%) + (no. of
15
N x 0.40%) + (no. of
2
H x
0.015%) + (no. of
17
O x 0.04%)
i.e. the probability to have A + 1 element (for e.g.
13
C,
2
H,
15
N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the isotopic molecular
ion [(M+1)
+
]
P
M+2
represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic
molecular ion [(M+2)
+
] expressed in the percentage
= (no. of
18
O x 0.20%) + (no. of
37
Cl x 32.50%)
i.e the probability to have A + 2 element (for e.g.
18
O,
37
Cl,
34
S, etc.) contributions to the mass of isotopic molecular ion
[(M+2)
+
]
Isotopic abundance ratio for A + 1 element = P
M + 1
/P
M
Similarly, isotopic abundance ratio for A + 2 element =
P
M+2
/P
M
Percentage (%) change in isotopic abundance ratio =
[(IAR
Treated
– IAR
Control
)/ IAR
Control
) x 100]
Where, IAR
Treated
= isotopic abundance ratio in the treated
sample and IAR
Control
= isotopic abundance ratio in the
control sample.
3. Results and Discussions
The mass spectrum obtained by the GC-MS analysis for
the control and biofield energy treated p-DCB (C
6
H
4
Cl
2
) in
the positive-ion mode were shown in Figure 1 and 2,
respectively. Figure 1 indicated the presence of the parent
molecular ion peak of p-DCB at m/z 146 (calculated 145.97
for C
6
H
4
Cl
2
+
) at the retention time (R
t
) of 7.23 min along
with four major fragmented peaks that were well matched
with the literature [38]. The major fragmentation peaks at m/z
111, 75, 55 and 50 were due to the fragmentation of p-DCB
into C
6
H
4
Cl
+
, C
6
H
3
+
, C
4
H
7
+
, and C
4
H
2
+
, respectively. The
biofield treated sample exhibited the parent molecular ion
peaks (C
6
H
4
Cl
2
+
) at m/z 146 at R
t
of 7.24, 7.25, 7.27, and
7.33 min and were very close to the R
t
of the control sample.
The biofield energy treated sample analyzed at different time
intervals (T1, T2, T3, and T4) showed similar fragmentation
pattern as control (Figure 2). Only, the relative peak
intensities of the fragmented ions in biofield treated sample
were significantly altered with respect to the time.
The molecule p-DCB comprises several atoms of H, C,
and Cl. Calculating the relative abundances for the isotopic
contributions to the peaks in various ion clusters at low m/z
discrimination will reflect the contributions of several
different isotopes to the same peak. [34, 37, 39, 40]. The
most intense peak P
M
in this cluster was at m/z 146, and its
size is determined solely by the most abundant elemental
composition which is defined as '100%'.
P
M+1
and P
M+2
can be calculated theoretically according to
the method described in the materials and method.
P (
13
C) = [(6 x 1.1%) x 100% (the actual size of the M
+
peak)] / 100% = 6.6%
P (
2
H) = [(4 x 0.015%) x 100%] / 100%= 0.06%
Thus, P
M+1
i.e.
13
C and
2
H contributions from (C
6
H
4
Cl
2
+
) to
m/z 147 is 6.66%.
P (
37
Cl
2
) = [(2 x 32.5%) x 100%] / 100% = 65.0%
So, P
M+2
i.e.
37
Cl contributions from (C
6
H
4
Cl
2
+
) to m/z 148
is 65.0%.
Beside these, another two isotopic molecular ion peaks at
m/z 149 and 150 were found in the GS-MS spectra due to the
presence of two chlorine atoms in the molecule. P
M+3
was
obtained from the many possible combinations like
13
C
37
Cl,
2
H
37
Cl, etc. contributions from (C
6
H
4
Cl
2
+
) to m/z 149.
Similarly, the P
M+4
was occurring due to many possible
combinations like
13
C
2
H
37
Cl,
37
Cl
2
,
13
C
2
37
Cl,
2
H
37
Cl, etc.
contributions from (C
6
H
4
Cl
2
+
) to m/z 150.
It has been found that statistically, the coincidental of both
carbons being
13
C is approximately 1 in 10,000 [41-43]. The
deuterium did not contribute much any of the m/z ratios in
natural p-DCB as the natural abundance of deuterium is too
small relative to the natural abundances of isotopes of carbon
and chlorine. Hence,
13
C and
37
Cl have the major
contributions from (C
6
H
4
Cl
2
+
) to m/z 147, 148, 149, and 150
[41-44].
P
M
, P
M+1
, P
M+2
, P
M+3
/P
M
and P
M+4
/P
M
for the control and
biofield energy treated p-DCB at m/z 147, 148, 149, and 150,
respectively were achieved from the observed relative
intensity of [M
+
], [(M+1)
+
], [(M+2)
+
], [(M+3)
+
], and
[(M+4)
+
] peaks in the GC-MS spectra respectively and are
shown in Table 2.
The percentage change in isotopic abundance ratios of
P
M+1
/P
M
, P
M+2
/P
M
, P
M+3
/P
M
and P
M+4
/P
M
in the control and
biofield treated p-DCB are presented in Table 2 and Figure 3.
The isotopic abundance ratios in biofield energy treated p-
DCB (T1-T4) were calculated comparing to the control
sample using the mass spectrum (Table 2). The relative peak
intensities of P
M+2
and P
M+4
was significantly larger than P
M+1
and P
M+3
due to the high influence of two chlorine atoms
presented in p-DCB (Figure 1 and 2).
33 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated
1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
Figure 1. The GC-MS spectrum and different proposed fragmentations of control sample of p-DCB.
Figure 2. The GC-MS spectra of biofield energy treated p-DCB analyzed at the different time points (T1, T2, T3, and T4).
Modern Chemistry 2016; 4(3): 30-37 34
Table 2. Results of isotopic abundance ratios in control and biofield energy treated p-DCB.
Parameter Control
Treated
T1 T2 T3 T4
P
M
at m/z 146 (%) 100 100 100 100 100
P
M+1
at m/z 147 (%) 9.38 10.40 17.25 30.50 32.00
P
M+1
/P
0.0938 0.1040 0.1725 0.3050 0.3200
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (P
M+1
/P
) 10.87 83.90 225.16 241.15
P
M+2
at m/z 148 (%) 83.71 87.52 91.65 85.22 83.48
P
M+2
/P
0.8371 0.8752 0.9165 0.8522 0.8348
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (P
M+2
/P
) 4.55 9.49 1.80 -0.28
P
M+3
at m/z 149 (%) 5.68 6.54 10.37 16.61 18.08
P
M+3
/P
0.0568 0.0654 0.1037 0.1661 0.1808
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (P
M+3
/P
) 15.14 82.57 192.43 218.31
P
M+4
at m/z 150 (%) 15.14 17.23 28.26 43.32 46.07
P
M+4
/P
0.1514 0.1723 0.2826 0.4332 0.4607
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (P
M+4
/P
) 13.80 86.66 186.13 204.29
T1, T2, T3, and T4: biofield energy treated sample analyzed at different time interval; M: mass of the parent molecule; P
M
: the relative peak intensity of the
parent molecular ion [M
+
]; P
M+1
: the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)
+
]; P
M+2
: the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular
ion [(M+2)
+
], P
M+3
: the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+3)
+
], P
M+4
: the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+4)
+
].
Figure 3. Percent change of the isotopic abundance ratios of (P
M+1
)/P
M
,
(P
M+2
)/P
M
, (P
M+3
)/P
M
and (P
M+4
)/P
M
compared to the control in p-DCB after
biofield energy treatment.
The GC-MS spectral analysis revealed that the isotopic
abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in biofield energy treated
sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by
10.87, 83.90, 225.16, and 241.15%, respectively in
comparison to the control sample (Table 2). Consequently,
the P
M+2
/P
M
in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, and
T3 was increased by 4.55, 9.49, and 1.80%, respectively in
comparison to the control sample. On the contrary, the
P
M+2
/P
M
in biofield energy treated sample at T4 were slightly
less (0.28) than the control sample (Table 2). The isotopic
abundance ratio of P
M+3
/P
M
in biofield energy treated sample
at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 15.14,
82.57, 192.43, and 218.31%, respectively in comparison to
the control sample (Table 2). Similarly, the isotopic
abundance ratio of P
M+4
/P
M
in biofield energy treated sample
at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 13.80,
86.66, 186.13, and 204.29%, respectively in comparison to
the control sample (Table 2). The Figure 3 clearly suggest
that there was a different effect of the isotopic abundance
ratios (P
M+1
/P
M
, P
M+3
/P
M,
and P
M+4
/P
M
) in biofield energy
treated samples with respect to the time. This indicated that
these samples had the time dependent response. On the other
hand, the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
in treated
sample showed different behaviour i.e. it was increased up to
a certain period, then suddenly decreased. These results
suggest that the biofield energy might have taken some time
for the changes in the isotopic abundance ratio.
Replacement of the isotopic composition of the molecule
significantly alters the vibrational energy [45, 46]. The
vibrational energy depends on the reduced mass (µ) for a
diatomic molecule as shown in the below:
E
0
=

and reduced mass (µ) =
 
Where, E
0
= the vibrational energy of a harmonic
oscillator at absolute zero or zero point energy; f = force
constant
The reduced mass (µ) of some probable isotopic bonds
was calculated and presented in Table 3. The result showed
that µ of normal bond i.e.
12
C-
12
C (µ=6),
12
C-
35
Cl (µ=8.94),
and
1
H-
12
C (µ=0.92) were increased in case of heavier
isotopic bond i.e.
13
C-
12
C (µ=6.24),
12
C-
37
Cl (µ=9.06),
13
C-
35
Cl (µ=9.48),
1
H-
13
C (µ=0.93),
13
C-
37
Cl (µ=9.62), and
2
H-
12
C
(µ =1.71). As per the literature, the heavier isotopic
molecules have lower diffusion velocity, mobility,
evaporation rate, thermal decomposition and reaction rate,
but having higher binding energy than lighter molecules [45-
48]. The biofield energy treated p-DCB have the higher
isotopic abundance ratios. Therefore, after biofield energy
treatment, bond strength, stability, and binding energy of p-
DCB molecule might be increased due to the higher effective
internal mass (µ).
Table 3. Possible isotopic bonds in p-DCB.
Isotopes bond
Isotope type Reduced mass (µ) (m
A
.m
B
/(m
A
+m
B
)
12
C-
12
C Lighter 6.00
13
C-
12
C Heavier 6.24
1
H-
12
C Lighter 0.92
1
H-
13
C Heavier 0.93
2
H-
12
C
Heavier 1.71
12
C-
35
Cl
Lighter 8.94
13
C-
35
Cl
Heavier 9.48
12
C-
37
Cl
Heavier 9.06
13
C-
37
Cl
Heavier 9.62
m
A
: mass of atom A; m
B
: mass of atom B, here A and B may be C or H or Cl.
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